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Chapter 21 class notes

by: Tristen Griffith

Chapter 21 class notes 70054

Marketplace > Alabama A&M University > History > 70054 > Chapter 21 class notes
Tristen Griffith
Alabama A&M University

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About this Document

these notes cover the colonization of the americas
History 102
Class Notes
NewWorld, history, colonizing americas
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tristen Griffith on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 70054 at Alabama A&M University taught by Dr.Halverson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see History 102 in History at Alabama A&M University.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
Chapter 21 : The Americas and Oceania Tuesday, September 27, 2016 12:13 PM  Colliding Worlds *Europeans established colonies in the Americas with help from disease, technology and divided native peoples*  Spanish Caribbean  Tainos  First natives to meet the Spanish  Were most prominent people in the region  Spanish Arrival  Columbus made Hispaniola the center of Spanish Operations in the Caribbean  Since the Caribbean couldn't produce spices the Spanish set out to find more profitable lands  They created the encomienda:  An institution in which settlers could employ natives to work in mines or fields but they had to look out for native welfare and convert them to Christianity  Encomenderos = Spanish settlers  Under encomienda encomenderos worked natives hard and punished them severely this led to a major population decline  Smallpox  After Columbus arrived in the Caribbean smallpox took of  Entire native societies passed out of existence  From Mining Plantations to Agriculture  After the Spanish realized that gold was scarce they felt Caribbean Alone  The English Dutch and French soon took over the Caribbean to plant cash crops (Sugar and Tobacco)  Caused millions of slaves to be imported and influenced slave trade  Conquest of Mexico and Peru *During the 16th century Spanish conquistadors pressed West into Mexico, Panama and Peru*  Hernan Cortes  Led the conquest of Mexico  Landed and traveled into Tenochtitlan the Aztec capital  One the first attempt to take the city Hernan seized Moctezuma the Aztec Emperor  The second time he was able to conquer the city thanks to advanced weaponry native alliances and disease  Francisco Pizarro  Led the Spanish expedition into Peru  Arrived in Peru while Incas were at war with each other  This made it easy to pin the natives against each other  The killed everyone and stole gold from temples buildings and graves  Spanish Colonial Administration  Spanish government established total control over colonies by 1570  There were 2 main centers of Authority  Mexico (New Spain)  Peru (New Castillo)  Both centers were governed by viceroys  Viceroys were the Kings representative in the Americas  The viceroys were reviewed or checked by the audiencecas or traveling courts  The downfall to Spanish Administration in the Americas was the distance  American rulers could pretty much do their own thing  Portuguese and Brazil  Portugal got Brazil thanks to the Treaty of Tordesillas  The Treaty of Tordesillas divided the world north and south Spain go the lands on the right Portugal got the lands to the left  Portugal's main interest in these lands were sugar  Colonial American Society  Spanish and Portuguese rapidly established cities  They made every attempt to make cities resemble Europe  Natives and Europeans began to adopt each other's religious customs o Settler Colonies North America *Europeans sought to establish possible colonies so they headed North to North America* o Foundation Colonies  Early 17th century Europeans planted permanent ports on North American mainland  French settled in Port Royal and Quebec  English settled in Jamestown Massachusetts, Bay colony and New York  Life for early settlers was extremely difficult  Many people starved to death  The only way for peoples of a colony to survive was to make themselves valuable  French and English colonies remained under more control of private companies than the crown  Relations with Indigenous people  Unlike South America there were no large pre- existing states in North America  Europeans were able to stake out and claim diferent farm lands because natives were nomadic  Tried really hard to justify claims to land  English wanted to make legal settlements with natives  Others argues that the natives weren't "using" the land anyway  European intrusions led to massacres  Violent conflict greatly decreased native populations  Disease killed of many natives too  Colonial Society in America  Europeans interacted with both natives and African Slaves  Led to Mestizo (mixed populations)  Christianity Was established as the dominant faith  Formation of Multicultural Society  Mestizo Society  Spanish and Portuguese became ethnically mixed  Migration to the "New World" was male dominated  In order for the colonies to survive men had to had children with the natives  This began to mestizo society  Portuguese had the same problem so men married natives and slaves  Mulatto= European and African  Zambos= African and Native  Social Hierarchy  Race and Ethnicity were crucial to the hierarchy  Sexual hierarchy more defined  Women lived in patriarchal world  Women could not exercise power outside the home  Women of diferent races were treated diferently  European women: could potentially use her superior status to her advantage  Colored women: were colonial workers and laborers  Black, mulattos and zambo slaves we treated the worst  North American Societies  In French and English colonies women were numerous so there was no need for relations with natives  Settlers did not marry outside of their ethnic group  English Colonist saw natives as "lazy heathens"  Later would scorned Africans as inferior  English borrowed cultural elements from foreign communities  Strongly discouraged mixed relationships or marriage o Mining Agriculture in the Spanish Empire  Silver mining  Silver was the most abundant American Treasure  Silver production concentrated in 2 area  Mexican North  Andes Mountains  Employed large numbers of indigenous workers  Adopted mita a draft labor system to accommodate the demand  Each village required to send 1/7 of their male population to work for 4 months at a time  Global Significance  Mining powered Spanish economy  Most silver traveled traveled across the Atlantic to fund the Spanish Army  It lubricates markets through Europe  Silver became the Global currency  Hacienda  Other than mining the Spanish Focused on farming, stock raising, and crafts  Hacienda: estate that produces and sold goods  Creoles owned smell estates nearby


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