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PSY 120 Ch 2 notes

by: Alexandra Raute

PSY 120 Ch 2 notes PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid

Alexandra Raute

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Chapter 2
PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid
Erin Sparks Ward
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Raute on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid in Psychology (PSYC) at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
Ch 2 Notes: Tools of Psychological Research  2-1 Observing behavior: Descriptive Research  Descriptive research: methods to observe/describe behavior  Sometimes you cannot just sit there to observer; can cause reactivity (behavior changed by observation) consequences: loss of external validity (how results generalize to all situations/real life and improve with multiple observations)  Naturalistic Observation: only natural behavior not lab behavior  Cannot interfere and must represent real life; decreased reactivity with indirect measure of results of behavior verifies results from lab (ie: sensecams)  Case study: descriptive technique for single case (usually individual) which gives important historical background to help form hypothesis  Limitations include if there is external validity, and how to verify  Survey: descriptive technique for limited amounts of information from increased number people; usually a questionnaire  Research basis or opinion; need random sample (target population has equal likelihood of being selected to take out bias)  Psychological tests designed to measure differences among people/tendencies to act a certain way (answers the fundamental quests about behavior and mind)  Measure of central tendency/value where scores cluster  Mean: arithmetic average of set of scores; sensitive to extreme scores  Mode: frequency of occurring score; unaffected by extreme scores  Median: middle point; unaffected by extreme scores  Variability: how much scores differ from one another using range and standard deviation (provides indication of how much individual score varies from mean)  Standard deviation found by: take difference between each score and mean, square, find the mean of the squared, calculate square root of average; if the difference between test scores and the mean is greater than the standard deviation then it is rare  Descriptive statistics: help describe data  Inferential statistics: decide if behaviors are representative of the population and if difference among observation is because of chance (law of probability needs to be below 5%)  2-2 Predicting Behavior: Correlational Research  Correlation: indicates whether 2 variables interact in systematic ways (computed by gathering observations on both things from single set of individuals and calculating correlation coefficients to tell us how well the value of one variable can be predicted if the 2 ndvalue is known)  Positive: correlation of e2 measures move in same way (increased practice and increased success)  Negative: 2 measures go in opposite directions (more error if you study less)  All range between -1&+1 (stronger correlations are closer to +/- 1)  Shown through scatter plots, noncorrelated if coefficient is 0 (cannot predict eachother)  Correlations are useful to describe how behaviors co-occur (can only predict)  Third Variables: things that could help influence correlation between other variables  2-3 Explaining Behavior: Experimental Research  Experimental Research: investigator manipulates experiment/environment to observe effect on behavior  Independent variable: manipulated factor (2 conditions); only thing changing systematically  Dependent variable: behavior measured  Experimental &control groups are identical except for independent variables and there are confounding variables (uncontrolled variables changing with independent variable; need to have internal validity)  Random assignment: ensures each participant has the same chance of being assigned to any condition in experiment  Single blind study: don’t know what group you’re in  Double-blind study: both researcher and participant don’t know what group they’re in to keep bias to a minimum and control expectancies  Purpose of experiment is to gain control not external validity  2-4 Ethics of Research: Human and Animal Guidelines  Informed consent: participant must be fully informed about anything that could affect wanting to do the experiment  Written consent needed and no negative consequences if you don’t consent; APA code of ethics states deception is only okay if for scientific, educational, or applied value is clear and not causing physical or emotional harm  Debriefing: informing participants about purpose of experiment & deception involved  Confidentiality: personal information is obtained in research and not discussed without permission (helps them feel comfortable)


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