Psych 111, Chapter 6 Notes
Psych 111, Chapter 6 Notes Psychology 111
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Fricke on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 111 at Crafton Hills College taught by Sandra B. Moore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology: Lifespan 111 in Psychology at Crafton Hills College.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Chapter 6: Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood: Two to Six Years 09/27/2016 ▯ KEY: ▯ VOCABULARY Important words to know ▯ Important info People ▯ dates ▯ examples/results ▯ theories/studies/models ▯ ▯ Personality Development ▯ I. A Biological Perspective Genes as a role in the expansion of personality o BEHAVIOR GENETICS: an area of science that studies the nature of the relationship between genes and behavior Researchers in this field believe genes and biology are the predominant influences on our behavior, including personality HERETIBILITY ESTIMATE: a computation used by behavior geneticists to denote the independent contribution of genes to differences seen among people in a given trait PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR: voluntary behavior that is intended to benefit another person Twin Studies Fraternal or dizygotic twins (DZ) Share up to 50% of genes Identical or monozygotic twins (MZ) Share all of same genes Research methods Fail to account for effects of shared family environments o Behavior & personality are the result of a FUSION between genes and the environment ▯ II. Behavioral and Social-Cognitive Perspectives Our personality does not result from what is inside us, but rather from what happens to us o Child rewarded for helpful behavior more likely to perform prosocial acts in the future o Albert Bandura (social-cognitive theorist) 3-6 y.o. to watch adults play w/ toys, then play w/ toys themselves adults who displayed aggression child showed aggression adults who showed no aggression child showed none also aggression tendency was more evident in boys than girls Do young children copy what they see, or does their own thinking influence how much they adopt as their own behavior from what they observe? Study 24 m.o. watch live & televised models as they performed a task o some models interacted w/ children (either in person or through the screen) o others were aloof o children were more likely to imitate the interactive models suggests that children may evaluate sources of behavior rather than copying whatever they see ▯ III. A Psychodynamic Perspective Emphasize the expectation that societies have for individuals to gain greater and greater control over themselves as their biological maturation allows o Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory INITIATIVE VERSUS GUILT STAGE: Erikson’s third stage of psychosocial development, in which the 3-6 y.o. child must learn to take responsibility for their own behavior without feeling guilty for the outcomes of that behavior ▯ IV. Development of Self- Understanding SELF- CONCEPT: one’s multidimensional impression of one’s own personality, of the attributes, abilities, and attitudes that define one’s self o CATEGORICAL SELF: self definitions based on concrete external attributes “I have hazel eyes.” “I live in a white house.” o SELF-ESTEEM: judgments of worth that children make about themselves and the feeling that those judgments elicit Most easily seen in their behavior High self esteem behaviors Confidence, curiosity, initiative, and independence Adaptive reactions to change or stress Low self esteem behaviors Low confidence, curiosity, initiative, and independence Difficulty in reacting to change or stress o John Bowlby Children who experience responsive and emotionally supportive caregiving are more likely to view themselves as lovable and worthy of support Secure attachment to caregiver = positive self perceptions and self esteem o School Quality of teach-child relationships are correlated to children’s academic self concept Acceptance by peers = social self concept ▯ Social Influences ▯ I. Parenting Parenting is most significant influence on socioemotional development Parenting Styles o Diana Baumrind DEMANDINGNESS: the level of demands parents make on their children. The number, intensity and consistency of demands can all vary, along a continuum from very high to very low RESPONSIVENESS: the speed, sensitivity, and quality with which parents attend to the needs of their children. Ranges from very high to very low. Parenting styles AUTHORITARIAN: a style of parenting characterized by high demands but low responsiveness Demand obedience from children & are consequence-oriented; quick to punish disobedience AUTHORITATIVE: a style of parenting characterized by high demand and high responsiveness Creates rules and expectations while explaining reasons for their rules Permissive PERMISSIVE-INDULGENT: a style of parenting characterized by high responsiveness but very low demand. o Involved, caring, and loving, but provide very few rules and guidance PERMISSIVE-NEGLECTFUL: a style of parenting that is low in both demand and responsiveness o Uninvolved, distant, and often unaware of child’s activities o Consequences of parenting styles: Responsive social competence & positive adjustment Demanding high levels of academic achievement & behavioral control High response, low demand reduced social competence Low response, high demand low self-esteem and depression Discipline o Punishment: unpleasant consequences of failing to follow rules o Discipline: teaching children to control their behavior and follow rules INDUCTION: a rational form of discipline in which adults use reasoning & explanations to help children understand the effects of their behaviors on others Behavior practices Consistently rewarding positive behaviors Time outs Authoritarian parenting style Thought strict parenting well behaved children CORPORAL PUNISHMENT: the use of physical force to cause pain or discomfort in order to punish unwanted behavior o It’s ineffective & harmful Increased risk of internalized aggression, anger, withdrawal & criminal behavior in children Models that physical aggression is ok for children PHYSICAL ABUSE: non- accidental physical injury as a result of caretaker acts such as shaking, slapping, beating, punching, kicking, biting or burning SEXUAL ABUSE: the involvement of children and adolescents in sexual activities that they do not understand and for which they cannot give informed consent NEGLECT: failure of caretakers to provide for a child’s fundamental needs, such as adequate food, housing, clothing, medical care, emotional well-being, or education EMOTIONAL ABUSE: continual verbal harassment & intimidation of a child by means of disparagement, criticism, threat, or ridicule ▯ II. Non-parental Childcare NON-PARENTAL CHILDCARE: any type of childcare that is carried out by someone other than the primary childcare provider o Timing of mothers’ return to work following childbirth increase use of NPC o CENTER BASED CHILDCARE: childcare that is provided at a location away from home, generally including 4+ children & a qualified childcare provider o What constitutes a high quality daycare center? Qualified daycare workers Licensing Low child: caregiver ratio Education mission Safety o Cons: Children who experienced early, extensive, and continuous non-maternal care had less harmonious relationships with parents, along with higher levels of aggression and noncompliance during the toddler, preschool, and early primary school years o National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Examined relationship b/t quality and quantity of childcare High quality early childcare = stronger pre- academic skills Large quality of time in early childcare = more likely to show problem behaviors ▯ III. Media Exposure Television media and aggression o Longitudinal Study of the Associations between violent TV & aggressive behavior 8 y.o. who watched 4+ hours of violent TV each day and studied the participants for 40 years 60% of OG participants remained involved concluded that there is a clear correlation between watching violent TV & aggressive behavior o Effect size: a measure of how much change in one variable is brought about by a change in another variable o RELATIONAL AGGRESSION: subtle harmful acts, such as manipulating, gossiping about, or creating public humiliation for another individual Television media and cognition o TV addresses gender identity, gender roles, worldviews, creativity, imagination, ability to take perspectives of others, perceptual skills such as attention, memory and perception Television and Pro-social Behavior o Sesame Street High levels of viewing educational media have been linked to pro-social behavior Improve vocabularies and information of the world ▯ IV. Gender GENDER IDENTITY: a person’s perception of their gender category o Most children can tell you their sex by approx. age 2 o GENDER CONSTANCY: the belief that one’s ender is permanent and unchanging Transgender children begin showing gender atypical behavior during preschool years Wearing opposite sex clothing Playing w/ opposite sex toys o GENDER ROLE DEVELOPMENT: specific behaviors or appearances that are expected of boys or girls, based on their culture’s beliefs about gender GENDER-SCHEMA THEORY: a cognitive approach to understanding gender development that centers on children’s own constructions of gender Gender roes and play o Gender-typed toy selections @ 18-20 mo. o 3 y.o. stereotypes for gender appropriate play o 4/5 y.o. “hot potato effect” won’t play w/ certain toys b/c of fear of judgment from their peers Influences on gender role o Parents Dissuade doll play in sons, encourage nurturing and submissive play in daughters ▯ Emotional Development ▯ I. Developing a Vocabulary to Describe Emotions EMOTION VOCABULARY: the number of words a person can use to name their emotional states & explain the emotional behavior of self & others ALEXITHYMIA: difficulty understanding, identifying, and describing emotions w/ words o Have issues distinguishing b/t positive and negative emotions Fear and excitement o Persists into adulthood in about 10-15% of people ▯ II. Regulating Emotions EMOTION REGULATION: the ability to control the behavior one displays in response to an emotional state o Emotion Regulation & Peer Relations Children who are more accurate at sending emotional communications tend to have more friends AFFECTIVE SOCIAL COMPETENCE: the ability to effectively communicate one’s own emotions, interpret and respond to others’ emotions, and successfully manage the experience of emotions DISPLAY RULES: cultural norms that dictate socially appropriate emotional displays o Problems with emotion regulation INTERNALIZING PROBLEMS: problems that result when children over-control their expression of emotions, including depression, social withdrawal, anxiety and somatoform disorders EXTERNALIZING PROBLEMS: problems that result when children under-control their expression of emotions, including aggression and delinquency Aggression most common in 24-42 mo. INSTRUMENTAL (PROACTIVE) AGGRESSION: a goal oriented act through which a person or object is harmed HOSTILE (REACTIVE) AGGRESSION: an intentional act that harms a person or object o Factors influencing emotion regulation Parent’s beliefs about emotion intimately influences their children’s emotional tendencies ▯ III. Emotions & Early Moral Development By age 2/3, children have internalized moral rules about what to do and what not to do in various situations 4/5 years o MORAL EMOTIONS: emotions believed to play a fundamental role in morality Guilt, shame, empathy SELF-CONSCIOUS EMOTIONS: moral emotions that are evoked by self reflection & self evaluation Guilt & shame Guilt: the emotional response to one’s own wrong doing o Feeling of regret o When parents are warm towards children & children have fearful temperaments, guilt is increased o Authoritarian parents who exert power over a child’s behavior, appear to undermine internalization of guilt SHAME: a feeling that the whole self is a failure or bad, which can lead to defensiveness & social withdrawal o Focuses more on others’ negative perceptions of the self Empathy Empathy: based on one’s comprehension of another’s emotional state & is similar to what the other person is feeling or might be expected to feel o Feels sad b/c a peer is sad Sympathy: a feeling of sorrow or concern for another TWO types of empathic reactions o Other-oriented helping behaviors o Self-oriented personal distress Secure attachment relationship b/t mother & child leads to an increase positively associated w/ children’s empathy & guilt ▯ ▯
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