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by: Audrey Meadows
Audrey Meadows
Oakland Community College
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover the Senate and House, how they are made up and what powers they have
American Government
Dr. Crews
Class Notes
American Government, government notes, Congress, Senate
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Audrey Meadows on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POL 1510 at Oakland Community College taught by Dr. Crews in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science at Oakland Community College.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
Congress (House and Senate) Service Requirements- Legislative Branch 2 year term, must be at least 25 years old, residents of the state, U.S citizen for at least 7 years (House) 6 year term, must be at least 30 years old, residents of state, U.S citizens for 9 years (Senate) th U.S Senator were appointed until the 17 amendment passed in 1913. The House represents a district The Senate represents an entire state House-435 members Senate-100 members U.S House congressional districts are made up of about 700,00 constituents Representation Revisited Trustee Model: emphasizes the sound judgment of reps and encourages then to reach decisions in the best interest of the nation as a whole Delegate Model: instructs reps to follow the opinions and mandates of their constituents at all times in order to have a truly representative democracy Hybrid: Politico An Aside on Districting Census: An official enumeration of a population, often including the collection of related demographic info; taken every 10 years Reapportionment: Redistribution of the representation in a legislative body, especially the re-allotment of congressional seats according to changes in the census figures. (reassign the number of districts to give to each state based on population) Redistricting: It is the states responsibility to divide again into districts, especially to give new boundaries to administrative or election districts Gerrymandering: to divide election districts to give one political party an electoral majority in a large number of districts (a redistricting strategy to benefit one political party and disadvantages the other) Powers of Congress Taxation o Appropriates-allocates (how much money goes to different sectors of gov’t) o Authorizes- approves War Powers o Regulation of Commerce (currency, international trade) o Appointments and Treaties (2/3 of Senate must approve to pass laws, treaties etc.) Impeachment/Removal from Office Lawmaking o Enumerated powers (Expressed powers in the Constitution) o Implied powers (Not expressly states in Constitution but is part of the necessary and proper clause) Authorization of Courts Oversight (the ability to check in on the actions of the executive branch) Organizations of Congress Party with the most members controls Congress  House of Representatives  Speaker of the House  House Party Leadership o Minority party/Majority party Leader o Minority party/Majority party Whip (voter counter) House Leadership Paul Ryan-Speaker of the House Kevin McCarthy- House Majority Leader Steve Scalice- House Majority Whip Nancy Pelosi- House Minority Leader Steny Hoyer- House Minority Whip James Clyburn- Asst. Democratic Leader Organization of Congress Vice President: “ I am Vice President. In this I am nothing, but I may be everything.” – John Adams President Pro Tempore (temporary president of the Senate given to the longest serving member of the Majority party) Majority and Minority Leaders Majority and Minority Whips Senate Leadership Joseph Biden- President of the Senate Orrin Hatch- President Pro-Tempore Mitch McConnel-Senate Majority Leader John Cornyn- Senate Majority Whip Harry Reid- Senate Minority Leader Richard Durbin- Senate Congressional Committees Standing Committee- a permanent committee of Congress; empowered to write legislation and report to the full chamber Select, Joint, and Special Committees are focused on a more narrow set of issues A member chairs all committees if the majority party and have a majority of votes on the committee There are 20 committees in House and 16 committees in Senate Some Terminology Markup- a process by which bills are literally marked up or written by the members of the committee before going to the floor Ranking Member- leader of the minority party members of a committee (based on seniority) In the House House Rule Committee- maintains control before the bill goes to the floor by issuing a rule dictating how many amendments may be considered. Closed Rule- no amendments (no additional changes) Modified Closed Rule- a few particular amendments Open Rule- any number of amendments In the Senate Filibuster- tactic of extended speech designed to delay or block passage of a bill in the Senate Cloture- vote that can stop a filibuster and bring debate on a bill to end Hold-power available to prevent unanimous consent that allows a bill or presidential nomination to come to the Senate floor; can be broken by invoking cloture Member of Congress at Work  Set up office and hire staff  Legislative Responsibilities o Committee Work o Bill Sponsorship o Roll Call Votes o Federal Funds (earmarks)  Communication with Constituents  Preparing for the next election (raise money)


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