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Chapter 12 Notes

by: Jordan Marshall

Chapter 12 Notes PSYC 202

Jordan Marshall
Christopher Newport University
GPA 4.0

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Notes from lecture chapter 12
Investigating the Social Context of Behavior and Cognition
Dr. Mozo
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Marshall on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 202 at Christopher Newport University taught by Dr. Mozo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Investigating the Social Context of Behavior and Cognition in Psychology at Christopher Newport University.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
Chapter 12: Health  I) Health Psychology  Health psychology­the application of psychology to the promotion of physical health and physical and the prevention and treatment of illness  Although not always the case, social psychological principles are now  involved in health issues  Modification of lifestyle, outlook, and behavior can lessen the risk of things  like heart disease, cancer, stroke, AIDS, etc… II) Stages of Change Model  Pre­contemplation o Not yet ready to change and may not be aware there is a problem  Contemplation o Acknowledge problem but not yet ready to change  Preparation/Determination o Preparing to take action  Action/Willpower o Commit to making change and enacting a plan  Maintenance o Successful with behavior change over time III) Stress  Stress­the whole process by which we appraise and respond to events that  threaten or challenge us  An unpleasant state of arousal that arises when we when we perceive that the  demands of an event threaten our ability to cope effectively  Subjective appraisal of the situation determines: o How we experience the stress o What coping strategies we use  Eustress­the effect of positive events or the optimal amount of stress that  people need to promote health and well­being  Distress­the effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors  Major types of stressors o Catastrophes  Unpredictable, large scale events (natural disasters) o Cataclysmic events  Suddenly, without warning (9­11) o Significant life changes o Daily hassles  Selye (1976): Stress and the Body o General Adaptation Stress Model 1) Alarm Reaction  Alarm reaction caused by a sudden activation of your  sympathetic nervous system  Mobilizes energy in stressful situations o So your body recognizes danger and mobilizes for a “fight or flight” situation o System is activated but since you are in a temporary shock, your resistance drops below normal (usually  minor and short term 2) Resistance  Your body responds to the challenge with an outpouring of  stress hormones causing your temperature, blood pressure,  heart rate, and respiration to all remain high  Everything is in full force to help you cope with the  stressors  As body defenses stabilize, the symptoms of alarm seem to  disappear  The adjustment to stress and the outward appearance of  normality are maintained at high cost o The body is more able to cope with the original  stress o However, its resistance to any other stress is  lowered 3) Exhaustion  During this phase, the individual reservoir of resources is  becoming depleted  The person is especially vulnerable to diseases and in  extreme cases, collapse and death because the immune  system is being challenged by the long­term stress  Stress and blood pressure: Evans (1979) o Compared 10 groups of people o Some were in rooms 20x30 feet and some were in rooms 8x12 feet  (smaller rooms causing stress) o Results­people packed into small rooms had higher pulse rates and  blood pressure  Stress and the immune system o Stress compromises the body’s immune system o Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)­a subfield of psychology that  examines the links among psychological factors, the brain and nervous system, and the immune system o Cancer­stress increases malfunction of natural killer cell  NK cell­responsible for suppressing viruses and destroying  tumor cells o The immune system is the body’s first line of defense against invading substances and microorganism o Socials support and other stress­mediating factors can help sustain  one’s immune system  Social support may prevent illness by providing an outlet for  the person under stress  Effects of severe stress o Occurs when demands are too intense for our coping techniques (or if  we perceive them to be too intense)  Lowering of adaptive efficiency   “wear and tear”  Stress and the Common Cold: Cohen (1993) o Participants supplied information about three things:  Numbers of negative life events they had experienced in the  last 12 months  Perceived stress (by questionnaire)  Negative emotions (rating 15 emotions they felt in the past  week) o The volunteers were then exposed to common cold viruses, and two  outcomes were examined  Infection­detection of the virus or a significant rise of levels of  virus­specific antibodies in nasal samples 2­6 days after  exposure  Clinical colds­a clinician’s judgement of cold severity based on symptom checklists, body temperature, and numbers of tissues  used per day o Overall, 82% became infected and 46% developed colds o Important findings:  High stress participants­53% developed colds  Low stress participants­40% developed colds o Perceived stress and negative affect were associated with infection o Stressful life events were associated with development of clinical  colds, given infection IV) Post­Traumatic Stress Disorder  Up to 70% of adults in the U.S. have experienced at least one major trauma in  their lives  Examples: o Serious accident/natural disaster o Rape/assault o Combat exposure o Child abuse (sexual/physical) or neglect o Hostage/imprisonment/torture o Sudden unexpected death of a loved one  5 factors are necessary for diagnosis o Patient must have experienced or witnessed an extreme disaster o Re­experiencing of the traumatic event o Avoidance and emotional numbing o Increased arousal o Set of symptoms that have lasted at least one month V) Significant Life Changes  Change itself may cause stress by forcing us to adapt to new circumstances o Different types of change may or may not be harmful  No support that positive “stressors” are as harmful as negative  ones  Impact of change depends on person and how change is  interpreted VI) The Hassles of Everyday Life  Most common source of stress arises from the daily hassles that irritate us  (such as environmental factors)  Micro­stressors place a constant strain on us o The accumulation of daily hassles contributes more to illness than do  major life events  Top 10 daily stressors o Concern about weight o Health of a family member o Rising prices o Home maintenance o Too many things to do o Misplacing or losing things o Yard work, or outside home maintenance o Property, investments, or taxes o Crime o Physical appearance  Stress and noise o Research indicates that living in a busy city, near a highway, airport,  etc… can have detrimental effects  Everyday sources of stress o Pressure­the psychological experienced produced by urgent demands  or expectations for a person’s behavior that come from an outside  source o Uncontrollability­the degree of control that the person has over a  particular event or situation  The less control a person has, the greater the degree of stress o Frustration­the psychological experience produced by the blocking of  a desired goal or fulfillment of a perceived need o Possible reactions to frustration  Aggression­actions meant to harm or destroy  Displaced aggression­taking out one’s frustrations on some less threatening or more available target (a form of displacement)  Escape or withdrawal­leaving the presence of stressor (either  literally or by a psychological withdrawal into fantasy, drug  abuse, or apathy)     V)  Conflict  Conflict­psychological experience of being pulled toward or drawn to two  or more desires or goals, only one of which may be attained  Approach/approach conflict­a person must choose between two desirable  goals  Avoidance/avoidance­a person must choose between two undesirable  goals  Approach/avoidance­a person must choose or not choose a goal that has  both positive and negative aspects  Double approach/avoidance­a person must decide between two goals, each possessing both positive and negative aspects  VI) Personality Types  Type A Behavior Pattern o Characterized by extremes of competitive striving for  achievement, a sense of time, urgency, hostility, and  aggression o A risk factor for coronary heart disease o Hostility appears to be the main toxic ingredient in CHD  Type B Behavior Pattern o This person has an easier­going lifestyle o Less competitive o More understanding and forgiving o Enjoy leisure and weekends more  Some differences o The most important difference is that type A men are –  times more likely to suffer angina, heart attacks, or sudden  death than type B men o Type A smoke more, sleep less, drink more coffee, walk  faster, work later, drink less milk VII) Why are Hostility and CHD linked  Cardiovascular system becomes overworked  Hostile people are less health conscious  Hostile people are physiologically reactive o In tense social situations they exhibit more intense cardiovascular  reactions VIII) Social Support  Quality of social support can influence one’s ability to cope with stress o Those who have close relationships with friends, relatives, religious  organizations, etc… usually benefit and can be helped through a tough  time o This type of support is crucial for trauma victims (PTSD)  Simple social contact model o How many social contacts dos a person have o Intimacy model­Does the person have a close relationship with a  significant other o Perceived availability­Does the person believe that ample support is  available when needed  Religious connection o Religion provides an important source of social and emotional support  for many (only 15­20% of people have no religious affiliation) o There appears to be a link between religiosity and health  Religious individuals tend to outlive their non­religious  counterparts   Treatment: the “social” ingredients o All healers provide social support o All therapies offer a ray of hope  All therapies communicate and instill positive expectations o Patients can make meaningful choices about the treatment  Having too much support or the wrong kind can be as bad as not having  enough IX) Attributional and Explanatory Styles  Sellgman (1975) o Depression results from learned helplessness  Abramson et al. (1989) o Depression is a state of hopelessness brought on by the negative self­ attributions people make for failure o Depressive explanatory style X) Optimism and Hope  Optimism­generalized tendency to expect positive outcomes o Characterized by a non­depressive explanatory style  Health can spring from optimism as evident by the placebo effect  Pollyanna’s health o Positive thinking cannot guarantee good health  Victims of illness do not just have a bad attitude o Limits of positive thinking  Especially if it leads us to see ourselves and events in ways that are not realistic  Perception of Control o The expectation that our behaviors can produce satisfying outcomes o Self­efficacy­feelings of competence   A state of mind that varies from one specific task and situation  to another  Becoming more optimistic o When a bad mood strikes, stop and think about what just went through  your head o When you’ve recognized the negative statements, treat them as if they  came from someone else­someone who is trying to make your life  miserable  Think about the damage the statement is doing to you o Argue with those thoughts XI) Coping strategies  Problem focused coping oIn dealing with essential tasks, it is better to confront and control than to  avoid oAssessment­identify the sources and effects of stress oGoal setting­list the stressors and stress responses to be addressed  (designate which stressors are and are not changeable) oPlanning­list specific steps to be taken to cope with stress oAction­implement coping plans oEvaluation­determine the changes in stressors and stress responses that  have occurred as a result of coping methods oAdjustment­alter coping methods to improve results if necessary oNegatives:  Can be physiologically taxing  Can lead to development of an over­controlling, stress­inducing  Type A pattern of behavior  Emotion focused coping oOne way to react to stress is by shutting down and trying to deny or  suppress the unpleasant thoughts and feelings oDistraction van be and adaptive form of avoidance coping oConcealing one’s innermost thoughts and feelings can be physiologically  taxing oIronic processes: Wegner (1994)  The more you try not to think about something, the harder it is to  not oTwo aspects to opening up as an emotional means for coping with stress  One must acknowledge and understand one’s emotional reactions  to important events  One must express those inner feelings to themselves and others oOpening up could be helpful  Catharsis  Helps to gain insight to problem  Proactive coping oThe helpful coping resources provided by friends and others  Has therapeutic effects on psychological and physical health oSocial support and contact related to longevity oBeing popular: Hamrick, Cohen, and Rodriguez (2002)  For those under low stress, social connections didn’t matter   For those under high stress it did XII) Adaptation­Level Phenomenon  Adaptation­level phenomenon­tendency to judge various stimuli relative to  those we have previously experienced  Whatever it is that’s going on in our life, we immediately adapt to it and then  that becomes neutral  What once gave pleasure loses its effect XIII) Stress and Social Factors  Acculturative stress­results from the need to change and adapt to the majority  culture   Four methods of acculturation o Integration­maintaining a sense of original culture while forming  positive relationship with majority culture o Assimilation­giving up original cultural identity and adopting majority culture o Separation­rejecting the majority culture’s ways o Marginalization­maintaining no ties with original or majority cultures


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