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Biol 221, Weekly notes

by: Daria Hebron

Biol 221, Weekly notes Biol221-001

Marketplace > Towson University > Biology > Biol221-001 > Biol 221 Weekly notes
Daria Hebron
GPA 3.5
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These notes are precise and informative for the upcoming exam.
Human Anatomy % Physiology
Dr.Harald Beck
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daria Hebron on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol221-001 at Towson University taught by Dr.Harald Beck in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy % Physiology in Biology at Towson University.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
Integumentary System­ Weekly notes Precise and Helpful! ­consists of   skin (largest organ)    hair, glands and nails.  Functions:  Protect: protects from abrasion, ultraviolent light and unwanted microorganisms.  Prevents dehydration  Sensation: sensory receptor detects heat, cold, touch, pressure and pain. (touching  the hot stove) Temperature regulation: amount of blood flow through the skin, sweat glands Vitamin D production: producing vitamin D when the sun hits.  Mnemonic Alert!! Please  Stop Tickling  Vincent  Layers of the skin  Epidermis­    consist of avascular (no bloods vessels ) stratified squamous epithelial tissue  superficial part of the skin   reduce water loss Dermis­  made up of connective tissue   under the epidermis (epi=above)   the “muscles” of the skin (structural strength ) Hypodermis or Subcutaneous Layer  Loose connective tissue under the dermis  Connects the skin to underlying muscle  Insulates, stores energy, supply skin with blood vessels and nerves *epidermis has many layers to it. Organization of the Epidermis : From top to bottom  *Mnemonic Alert:  Corny Little Grandpas sends greatness  Stratum corneum:  superficial layer, provides strength, removing superficial cells ,  prevent water loss; 25 or more layers  Stratum lucidum: 3­5 layers of dead cells, appear in thick skin, appears  transparents. Function: disperses keratohyalin  around keratin fibers Stratum granulosum:2­5 layers of flattened cells, produces keratohyaline granules  cell dies Stratum spinosum :8­10 layers, producer keratin  fibers  Stratum germinativum :deep layer, melanocytes produces Dermis’s organization : Papillary layer:  loosely connective tissue under the dermis , form fingerprints and  bring blood vessels to the epidermis Reticular layer­ dense irregular connective tissue under the papillary layer, form  cleavage lines  Thick skin: skin that has all of the epithelial layers  Soles of feets and palms of the hands Thin skin : covers rest of the body and flexible Glands : S.A.M Sebaceous : in the dermis, are alveolar glands that produce oil or sebum Apocrine : simple and coiled gland found in the armpit, nipples, and groin Merocrine : simple and coiled glands, on the surface of the skin , located on palms  and soles *Ceruminous glands­ near the ear canal, produce earwax or cerumen* Hairs  Lanugo:  unpigmented hair that appears on a baby during the 5  and 6  month of  feta development Vellus: short and unpigmented hair on the armpit or axilla region and on the pubic  region  Terminal hairs: replace the lanugo near birth, appears on head, eyelashes , and  eyebrows Structures of hair involves the arrector pili and the sebaceous glands.  Arrector  pili is an smooth muscle that involuntary erects hairs. (goosebumps) Hair is everywhere right? Wrong. There isn’t any hair on your palms, soles,  finger& toes, and lips. Skin Color  ­Melanin are produced by melanocytes inside of melanosomes. Then it transfer to  keratinocytes  ­Carotene : yellowish orange color pigment that can change skin color a different  pigment if ingest too many carrots 


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