PSY 120 week 6
PSY 120 week 6 PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Raute on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see PSY 120: Elementary Psychology- Hybrid in Psychology (PSYC) at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Ch7: Learning from Experience Introduction Learning: the ability to adjust actions because of past experiences; define by behavior/change in potential behavior resulting from experience (behavior changes with environment so we can act more sensibly in the future 7-1 Learning About Events: Noticing and Ignoring Something new/different causes orienting response (orient towards a new sensation) Habituation: slowed or stopped response to event (ignore repetitive things); has a role in eating (habituating to tastes of food until a new taste comes along) Sensitization: response to event increases rather than decreases with repeated exposure (ex: loud music) more likely with intense/punishing stimuli 7-2 learning what Events Signal: Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning: learning relations between events occurring outside of control Pavlov developed it to show how associations formed; dog’s digestion & salivation with stimulus of food, found they would drool prematurely without full stimulus (psychic secretion) Psychic Secretions develop as result of experience and not learned responses; unconditioned stimulus (automatically leads to response (UR)) no learning conditions required Psychic secretions are conditioned responses (acquired response by CS in anticipation of US) Forming association between CS & US: CS is signal for US when providing information about deliver of US (ex: bell (CS) before delivery of food (US) pairing continues over time, dog salivates (CR) whenever bell rings (CS) CS needs to be before US, if at the same time or CS is after US then decreased conditioning occurs; US is after CS close in time otherwise it decreases the connection; CS must provide new information about the US otherwise it results in blocking (prevention of learning) CR prepare organisms for events expected to follow, interaction with US Second-order conditioning: establishes CS issued to condition a 2 nd neutral stimulus; the CR can have stimulus generalization: Watson and Rayner have experiment with “Little Albert” stimulus discrimination: responding differently to new stimuli—needed in order to discriminate between 2 tones (need experience) Context conditioning in Drug Addiction: usually take drugs in the same environment to signal the body of what’s about to happen—drug tolerance is classically conditioned response, need increased amounts of the drug to overcome the body’s CR Extinction: CS presented repeatedly after conditioning without US resulting in loss of responses—CS can no longer predict the US, CR sometimes appears after extinction with a CR (spontaneous recovery— never as strong as before) During extinction you forget the US due to conditioned inhibition (learning that events signal absence of US—providing new stimuli when US is expected) (ex: bell normally gets the dog food so if you ring the bell and have a flashing light then the dog will know food will not come afterwards) 7-3 Learning about Consequences of Behavior: Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning: learn own actions (not CS) have consequences Thorndike does animal testing with puzzle box and gives a treat with escape to see how learned to escape over time, relationship between time and number of prior successful attempts Law of effect: satisfying consequence increases strength making it more likely to occur BF Skinner and discriminative stimuli (sets an environmental occasion for response to be rewarded) Reinforcement: response consequences increase the likelihood of responding in similar ways again Positive: event presented/added to increase likelihood of response occurring Negative: removal/subtraction of event to increase the likelihood of response occurring Conditioned Reinforcers: stimuli acquired through prior learning Punishment: decrease likelihood of responses Positive: addition of event after response to decrease the likeliness of the same response Negative: subtraction of event to decrease the likeliness Schedule of reinforcement: partial/continuous reinforcement to determine particular responses Fixed-ratio: number required for response is fixed; steady rates of response Variable-ratio: unknown number of responses to get reinforcement; unpredictable and hard to train Fixed-interval: constant time period until response; decreases rates responding because you don’t have to respond all the time Variable-interval: changing time before reinforcement; helps eliminate pauses in between responses Shaping: reinforcement is delivered for approximations of desired response 7-4: Learning from Others: Observational Learning Trial and error is not always adaptive Observational learning: learning by watching others experiences (mirror neurons activated when observing something/someone) Model: natural tendency to imitate behaviors of a significant other Effective if model has good characteristics like attractiveness, honesty, self-competence, social Bandura and Bobo doll: show kids adult hitting Bobo’s; put kids in a room with Bobo and many end up mirroring violent behaviors (increase with praise) Strengthened through vicarious reinforcement (weakened by punishment) What we learn stems from prior experiences and beliefs Negative effects: watch violent cartoons leads to violence/aggression, shying away from what used to by gender specific roles