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Rest of the notes from Unit 1

by: Hayoung Lee

Rest of the notes from Unit 1 PSY 3300

Marketplace > Texas State University > Psychology > PSY 3300 > Rest of the notes from Unit 1
Hayoung Lee
Texas State
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Lifespan development
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayoung Lee on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3300 at Texas State University taught by Meeks in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Lifespan development in Psychology at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development 08.31.16  What is the science of development? o How and why for development o We include all kinds of people o Observing change over time  How do we study development? o Scientific Method:  We are curious, which leads to questions being asked  Create a hypothesis  Test the hypothesis  Draw conclusions from what we gathered  Report results  Who do we include? o All kinds of people  Why do we include them? o N  Nature vs. Nurture debate o Nature: relates to the genetic package o Nurture: how you are raised; starts from the moment from conception  Critical period: o Early in life when certain things must occur for development to be normal  Sensitive period o Certain types of development happened most easily (ex. Language)  Development is multidirectional in 5 ways: o Growth and plateau o Linear: upwards development such as height and weight o Growth and decline such as cognitive ability o Unpredictable o No change  Multi-contextual: o Cohort: age range o SES: Social Economic Status o Neighborhood context  Multi-cultural o Generations passing on values and what is important  Multidisciplinary o Many disciplines contribute to understanding lifespan development, such as medicine, education, psychology  Plasticity of Development o N Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development  Major Theories: o Freud’s Psychoanalytic theory: 5 psychosexual stages  Oral: birth to 1-year-old; oral stimulation  Anal: 1-3 years; pleasure shifts to being able to control bowel and bladder  Phallic: 3-6 years; parts their body has, curious to compare  Latency: 6-puberty; sexual interests and urges go dormant  Genital: puberty-rest of life; figuring out how to get their sexual needs met in an appropriate adult way o Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory: 8 stages  Trust vs. Mistrust: 0-1 years, involving what and what not to trust  Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: 1-3 years, involving doing things on their own  Initiative vs. Guilt: 3-6 years, involving being able to utilize their choices  Industry vs. Inferiority: 6-12 years, involving productivity  Identity vs. Confusion: 12-early 20’s  Intimacy vs. Isolation: 20’s-40’s, involving emotional intimacy, marriage  Generativity vs. Stagnation: midlife – 40’s, evaluating life they led so far, determining worth and good to the world  Integrity vs. Despair: end of life, life review of value and meaning, whether they made good decisions o Theory of Behaviorism:  Conditioning: learning associations  Classical Conditioning: learn associations between events you do not control (ex. Pavlov’s dogs who salivated with a signal of food)  Operant Conditioning: learning to associate consequences with certain responses and change accordingly o Bandura’s Social Learning Theory:  Our development is effected by our observation of others as we imitate and model our behavior o Piaget’s Cognitive Theory  Sensorimotor: 5 senses involved and interactions  Preoperational: -6 years  Concrete Operational: 6-11 years  Formal Operational: 12-rest of life, highest order of thinking  Assimilation: Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development  Accommodation o new information coming in, new framework (concept of child learning about cats and dogs with the differentiation of the two animals)  Humanism: Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs o 5. Self-actualization o 4. Esteem: feeling about self and others o 3. Love and Belonging: care and love from others o 2. Safety: personal safety o 1. Physiological: food, water, sleep, sex  Evolutionary: Charles Darwin believe: o Our nature causes us to:  Survive (driven to do so)  Reproduce o Our traits serve a purpose  Scientific Approach o Independent variable: variable being manipulated o Dependent variable: variable not being manipulated o Experimental group: receives the treatment o Control group: does not receive the treatment  What do we learn from research? o Examples:  Adjustment to divorce: negative effects may still be seen in childhood/adulthood  Delinquency: breaking rules/laws, good parenting at age 5, talking rather than corporal punishment leads to less delinquency  Daycare: mothers’ warmth and responsiveness to child are more important than the length of times in the daycare  Responsive and encouraging parenting: (positive with them) leads to better development by first grade  Stability of personality: tends to remain stable over time  How do we do research? o Survey method: gather information from many people (not very in depth) and is hard to validate (such as paper/online survey) o Cross-sectional method: look at different ages compared on the same trait o Longitudinal method: follow one group over time o Cross-sequential method: different groups of people that you do follow over time (combining longitudinal + cross sectional) Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development o Correlational method: looks to see if two things are related  Does not prove causation  Positive correlation: go the same direction, whether it is up/down  Negative correlation: go in opposite directions  Code of Ethics: o Voluntary: everyone needs to agree that they are part of the study o Confidential: any and all info must be confidential, cannot be shared o Harmless: cannot affect them negatively o Informed consent: can stop at any time  2!!!!!! 09.07.16 GENES AND PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT  DNA: molecules which hold our hereditary information o In every cell of our body o Human DNA has 46 molecules o Molecules are in 23 pairs o Each molecule is called a chromosome o Genes: the small sections of the chromosomes  Book of Life is a: cell o Chapters in the book are: chromosomes o Sentences in the chapters are: DNA o Words in the sentences are: genes  A gamete: a reproductive cell o Women: eggs!! o Men: sperm o Zygote: fertilized egg the 1 2 weeks of life  Cell formed from the sperm and the egg (ovum)  Genotype: all of our genetic potential  Phenotype: what is actually expressed  Genome: instructions for making a certain species  Human genome: 99.5% identical for any two people o Humans and chimpanzees: 98% identical o Humans and other mammals: 90% identical o Human Genome Project: completed in 2003, humans have between 20,000 and 23,000 genes o Hapmap: to list all possible variations and combinations of our human genes  Twins: Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development o Monozygotic: one sperm fertilized one egg, then split into two (identical!!); one conception o Dizygotic: two eggs are available to be fertilized (fraternal) o Females: XX chromosome (all eggs are X) o Males: XY chromosome  Polygenic: affected by many genes (height, eye/hair/skin color)  Multifactorial: affected by genes as well as the environment (  Genes o Dominant: controlling genes o Recessive: weaker genes  Carrier: someone who has the genes, but does not express it  Heritability: how much of a trait is due to genetics  Chromosomal Abnormality: o One half of all zygotes have the wrong number of chromosomes o So most never develop or end in miscarriage o 1 in every 200 births have a chromosomal abnormality o These abnormalities as syndromes  Down syndrome: o Most common of the extra chromosome syndromes o Trisomy – 21 o Eyes, face, tongue have distinct features o Slow intellectual development o Have a type of dementia similar to Alzheimer’s o Age faster than other adults  Abnormal Sex Chromosome: o Klinefelter syndrome  XXY chromosome  A little slow in elementary school  Around age 12, it becomes obvious that something is wrong  The double X keeps his penis from growing  Fat develops around breast  Hormone treatment as well as special education classes can help  Gene Disorders: o Dominant gene disorders:  Tourette syndrome:  Uncontrollable tics and verbal outbursts  Often begins about age 6, or school age  Sometimes disappears in adolescence o Recessive gene disorder:  Fragile X syndrome Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development  X linked because it is caused by a single gene  Most common form of inherited mental retardation  Children are often shy with poor social skills  Genetic Counseling: o A means by which couples can learn information about their genes, therefore make and form decisions about pregnancy o Who should have it??  Individuals who has a child, sibling, or parent with a genetic condition  Couples who have a history of miscarriage, stillbirth, infertility  Couples who are from the same ethnic group  Women who are 35 years of age or older  Prenatal tests: o Sonogram: ultrasound that makes images to determine gestation, neural defects, structure of baby o Amniocentesis: extract fluid from the amniotic sac (keeps warm, protection), must wait until about 4 months in, contains genetic information about child to determine what is genetically available; slightly higher chance of miscarriage/stillbirth o Chorionic villi sampling: may cause birth defects!!  Developmental Stages and Lengths: o Germinal (aka zygote): first 2 weeks of life th o Embryonicnd3 – 8 week o Fetal: 2 month – birth  Germinal Period major events o First two weeks after conception o Fertilized egg travels from fallopian tube to uterus via cilia o Implantation bleeding may happen, varies between women/pregnancies (spotting, light period) o Implant in uterus o Cell division and growth continuing o 60% of natural implantations fail to implant o 70% invetro conception fail to implant (egg and sperm in petri dish!!)  Embryonic Period o Differentiation occurs o Multiplying cells separate into 2 masses o Outside cells will become the placenta o Inner cells become embryo o Mass of cells becomes a distinct being Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development o Neural tube forms (need enough folic acid!) o 4 week after conception, cardiovascular system functioning + eyes, ears, nose and mouth starts to form th o 5 weeks after conception, arm and leg buds appear!! o By the end of the period weighs 1 gram; 1-inch long  Fetal Period o Sex organs begin to take shape (male determines sex of child) o At the end of 12 weeks, fetus has all body parts! o Weighs about 3 ounces and is 3-inches long  Age of Viability o Fetus can survive outside the womb with specialized medical care o 22-weeks after conception (pregnancy is 38-40 weeks) o Brain maturation is crucial to the age of viability o Due to breathing, sucking, sleeping, body functions that need to be regulated  Sonogram o When sound waves produce an image of the fetus o About 16 weeks after conception, can determine sex of the baby o Can determine age, sex, health of the child o By 28 weeks, fetus weighs about 3lbs o At this point it has a 95% chance of survival outside the womb o Last 3 months of gestation respiratory and cardiovascular systems greatly mature  The Process of Birth o When? 38 weeks after conception has occurred o Who? Fetus determines when birth will occur o How? The baby’s brain sends a chemical signal to the mother’s brain to start contractions (Oxytocin) o How long? 8 hours o Subsequent births? With each subsequent birth it gets shorter o Braxton-Hicks contractions: falth labor, body practicing  Can happen from the 4 month on  Irregular and vary in intensity  Stage 1: o Position of baby? Head down o Timing of contractions? 8 – 10 minutes apart o Length of contractions? 30 seconds o Length of stage 1? On average 8 hours o Transition? End of stage 1, baby moving into the birth canal  Stage 2: o Baby’s head moves through the birth canal o Usually lasts about 90-minutes Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development o With each contraction, baby’s head moves further through the birth canal o Episiotomy: recommended for straighter incision, easier to stitch, less prone to infection  Incision to vaginal opening  Often criticized, and U.S. is more common in use of this method o Ends when baby is completely out of the mom’s body  Stage 3: o Umbilical cord and placenta are expelled o Shortest stage, only lasts a few minutes o When baby breathes, then they are able to cut umbilical cord o Culture influences birth process o Is physically the same in all people  Exact moment of birth o When the baby emerges from the mom’s body o Most babies spontaneously breathe on their own, therefore no longer need oxygen from the mother o Clear airways of fluids/mucus with suction so baby can breathe  APGAR Scale: 5 areas o Taken 1 minute after birth, then 5 minutes after birth o Appearance (blue/body pink/all pink) o Pulse, heart rate (no pulse/<100/>100) o Grimace, reflexes (none/grimace/cough) o Activity (limp/some/active) o Respiration (absent/irregular/good)  Score (0/1/2)  7 or above, infant is not in danger  below 7, infant needs help breathing  below 4, infant is in danger and needs immediate medical help  Cesarean sections: surgical incision and removes the baby o Statistics for U.S: 33% o More expensive o Takes body longer to heal  LBW: (low) below 5.5lbs o VLBW: (very low) below 3.5 o ELBW: (extremely low) less than 2lbs 3oz o Pre-term: Low birth weight, and baby is more than 3 weeks early o SGA: (small gestational age) close to full term but are low birth rate  Causes of low birth rate o Genetics o Mother’s illness o Exhaustion of mother Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development o Infection of the baby o Malnutrition o Drug use o Multiple births  Father’s role o Important for mother and child to have father involved o Involves their health as well o Fathers need support too o Father should be involved throughout the pregnancy o All 3 benefit from father’s involvement  Kangaroo Care o Skin on skin contact between baby and parents o Helps low birth weight babies o Increases attachment between parents and babies  Bonding o Attachment between the parents and baby o Great if it can happen early in baby’s life o Still possible later  Postpartum depression o 8–15% of mothers experience this o Sense of adequacy and sadness after the birth of their child o Mild form is called baby blues o Most serious form is postpartum psychosis  Teratogens: any substance that can cross the placenta barrier and harm the developing fetus o Viruses, drugs, chemicals, stressors, environmental hazards o Can: impair prenatal development, cause birth defects, death o Behavioral teratogens: tend to harm the prenatal brain and cause behavioral problems or learning disabilities  Alcohol and FAS babies (fetal alcohol syndrome): look differently, smaller in structure, learning disabilities, not as smart,  FAE babies (fetal alcohol effects)  3 factors determine if harmful o Time of exposure o Amount of exposure o Fetus’ genetic vulnerability to damage to the substance  Critical period: time during development of a certain organ or body part is more susceptible to damage to a teratogen  Sensitive period: when teratogens can affect recent growth, more sensitive  Brain and nervous system: baby’s brain is affected throughout  Body structure and form: entire embryonic stage, critical for development of body structure  Threshold effect: Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development o Level at which a teratogen becomes harmful o In small doses, teratogen may be harmless  Interaction effect: o Two or more teratogens happening at the same time o May cause the teratogens to be even more damaging  Folic acid: for mom to have adequate amount so her baby does not have neural tube defects  Most harmful viral teratogen: HIV virus (may turn into AIDS, incurable) o Pregnant woman can pass on HIV during childbirth o Infants who have HIV may develop pediatric AIDS o Best way to prevent is to prevent adult AIDS  If mom has AIDS can reduce chances for baby by: o Taking anti-retroviral drugs o Having a C section rather than vaginal birth o Baby is also given anti-retroviral drugs o Baby cannot be breastfed  3!!!!! The First Two years: Biosocial  I. Body Changes: average North American newborn o At birth:  Weight: 7.5lbs  Height: 20 inches o At 2 years of age:  Weight: 30lbs  Height: 32-36 inches  How do we track growth? o Norms and percentiles o Simple tests to ensure senses are working  Head – Sparing: happens in malnourished (not enough calories) children, when the head continues to grow, but the body does not  Malnutrition: causes head-sparing, does not have an adequate number of calories to grow normally, or intake the wrong calories  Sleep: o Average: 17 hours a day (2/3 of day) o What happens in sleep? Growth process, brain matures, learning to occur, emotional regulation o REM sleep: important for brain maturation and growth process, as they grow, REM decreases over the first year of life  II. Early Brain Development Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development o Newborn’s neurons: born with more neurons than they’re ever going to need o Transient Exuberance: phenomenal increase in neural connections (think quicker, make sense) o Pruning: bodies and brains do this naturally, ones that are not used will wither away, natural process when unused neurons wither away  Experience: o Expectant: brain functions that require basic common experiences (for normal brain development) o Dependent: dependent on that specific child’s environment, culture, individuality, family o Plasticity: some traits change, are moldable as you go through life  III. Senses and Motor Development o At birth: born with all 5 senses active o Hearing: 5 months in utero, baby is able to hear o Vision: blurry at birth, becomes clear in the first few months of life, best distance for baby is around 12-14 inches o Function of senses? To keep them alive and for social interaction, comfort o Reflexes: help with body temperature, breathing, feeding (ex. Sneezing, thrashing about, hiccups, shiver, cry, tucking legs close to body, sucking, rooting reflex, turning towards the cheek that is touched and will go towards for food o Motor skills:  Gross motor skills: crawling, walking, running, sitting up  Fine motor skills: grasping, holding on to, picking something up between thumb and forefinger, o Timing of each:  Crawl: 8-10 months of age  Stand: momentarily at about 10 months of age  Walk: about 12 months of age  By 6 months: can reach for and grasp an object of the right size o Sequence and timing:  Timing is different for every child, sequence seems to stay the same o Public Health Measures:  Childhood death rates: 1950-2005, 2 billion deaths before the age of 5  Immunizations: helps keep children alive, now a standard procedure, key factor of children living through the first 5 years Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development  SIDS: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, have been able to lower worldwide, seems to be an ethnic factor (more likely African descent, less likely Asian descent), otherwise healthy child who dies during sleep, put babies to sleep on back, no fluffy bedding (harder infant mattress) o Ideal food:  Breastmilk!! Calorie rich, all of mother’s immunity  Why? Right after birth, women’s body will produce colostrum, a thick, high calorie substance and nutrient dense, more easily digestible for baby, sterile in body temperature, contains more vitamin C, A and Iron than cow/goat’s milk, prevent many infant allergies  Cultural and historical influence: o The First Two Years: Biosocial  Protein-Calorie Malnutrition: when child does not get enough calories of any kind  Effects of chronic malnourishment  Brains may not develop normally  Will have no body reserves to fight against disease (concerning getting and dying from illnesses)  May develop: o Marasmus: happens before age 1, the worst disease caused by malnutrition  growth stops, body tissue wastes away, and infant eventually dies  prevention of this begins in utero with mom’s good nutrition  good nutrition must continue once they are born o Kwashiorkor: malnutrition after age 1  Word means disease of the older child when a new baby arrives  Once new baby arrives, the disease of the older child due to no longer nursing, and no longer paying attention  Growth is slowed down, liver is damaged, immune system weakened  The face, legs, and abdomen swell with fluid  Low energy level, hair becomes thin, brittle, and colorless  Child is more vulnerable to other childhood diseases Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development  4!!!!!  Gross Motor Skills: o Large muscle movements (walking, running, crawling) o By 6 months, they usually can sit up by themselves o Crawl by about 8-10 months of age o Walk holding on by 9-10 of age (cruising) o Walk alone by 12 months of age  Fine Motor Skills: o Using thumb and forefinger o Smaller muscle movements like picking up o 4 months, try to grab but uncoordinated o 9 months, grab an object if they are determined and deliberate o Advance in skills as they advance in age  Sensation and perception o Can sense objects but do not understand o Are drawn to look at faces from birth on o Prefer images that resembles a face, rather than geometric shapes  Binocular Vision o Coordinating both eyes to see one object o Happens about 3 months of age o Ability to track an object with both eyes  SIDS: o Die during sleep with no known cause o Prevent and reduce the risk of SIDS  Put babies to sleep on back  No soft bedding  Don’t smoke during pregnancy  Co-sleeping: o when infants sleep with parents o Culture influences whether this occurs o North America/Europe, everyone has own room o In Asia, Africa, and Latin America, infants sleep with parents or beside parents  Breast Milk is the ideal food for babies o Colostrum: thick, high calorie substance o Breastmilk is sterile and body temperature o Contains more vitamin C, A, and Iron o More easily digested by the baby o Provides child with immunities o Protects against allergies o Recommended to breastfeed at least 4-6 months Lifespan Development CH 1: The Science of Development  1 year is goal, depending on culture  Piaget – Stage 1 Sensorimotor o Age: birth – 2 years o Milestones in thinking:  Assimilation: taking in new information and making it fit in existing structures  Accommodation: take in new information, change structures to accommodate to new information o Stage 1:  Object permanence: believe that objects and people continue to exist even though they can’t be seen  Happens usually around 8 months of age o Little scientists and Trial and Error:  Age:  Actions: sees our thinking as similar as a computer  Information processing: take in information and process o Visual Cliff:  Apparatus designed to show a sudden drop-off in horizontal surfaces  6-month old will still crawl across plexi-glass  10-months will not o Language development  Infants prefer speech over other sounds  Motherese: high pitched, simplified, and repetitive  Babbling: repeating certain syllables,  Deaf babies babble manually with hands  Age: occurs around 6-9 months of age o Holophrases:  One word sentences  Context gives you the meaning o Naming explosion  18-21 months of age  when they learn mostly nouns  synchrony: o coordinated o helps infants learn to read others emotions o develops basic skills of social interaction o helps infants learn to express their own feelings o


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