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Chapter 5 Notes

by: Jordan Marshall

Chapter 5 Notes PSYC 315

Jordan Marshall
Christopher Newport University
GPA 4.0

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Notes from the rest of chapter 5
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Lange
Class Notes
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This 131 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Marshall on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 315 at Christopher Newport University taught by Dr. Lange in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology at Christopher Newport University.

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Date Created: 09/27/16
Chapter 5: Anxiety Disorders (Panic Attacks) I) Diagnosis   Panic can result when a real threat suddenly emerges  Panic attacks happen in the absence of a real threat  Include at least four of the following symptoms: o Heart palpitations o Shortness of breath o Trembling o Sweating o Nausea o Faintness/dizziness o Feel out of touch with reality o Tingling in hands/feet o Hot/cold flashes o Chest pains o Choking sensation o Fear of physiological dysfunction Chapter 5: Anxiety Disorders (Panic Disorder) I) Diagnosis  Recurrent, unexpected panic attacks  The following symptoms for 1 month or more o Persistent concern about having additional attacks o Worry about implications/consequences of the attacks o Significant change in behavior  With or without agoraphobia­fear of leaving home and traveling to locations  from which escape might be difficult or help might be unavailable II) Prevalence and Statistics  Almost 3% overall prevalence  Likely to develop in late adolescence to early adulthood  Women are twice as likely than men to have panic disorder  Prevalence is the same across ethnic groups in the U.S. and occurs in cultures  across the world III) Biological Perspective  Occurs when o Irregular neurotransmitter activity and brain circuitry occur o Genetic predisposition to abnormalities in these areas  Treatment o Drug therapy  Brings at least some improvement to 80% of patients with  panic disorder  Benzodiazepines (such as Xanax) helpful to address panic  attacks  Antidepressants may help with day to day stressors of panic  disorder IV) Cognitive perspective   Misinterpreting bodily sensations o Panic­prone people generally tend to follow a common pattern with  respect to body sensitivity and cognitive response o High sensitivity to certain bodily sensations leads to misinterpretation  which leads to panic  Poor coping skills  Significant experience of unpredictable events, lack of control  Treatment o Educate clients  About panic in general  About the causes of bodily sensations  About their tendency to misinterpret the sensations o Teach more accurate interpretations o Teach relaxation, breathing, and coping skills o Highly effective  At least as helpful as medication o Cognitive or combination therapy preferred over just drug therapy Chapter 5: Anxiety Disorders (Phobias) I) Diagnosis  Phobia­persistence and unreasonable fears of particular objects, activities, or  situations o Intense fear for at least 6 months o Avoidance of feared object or situation o Immediate anxiety when exposed to object o Awareness that the fear is excessive or unreasonable  o Distress that interferes with functioning  Most common o Specific animals/insects o Enclosed spaces o Heights o Blood  II) Prevalence and Statics of Specific Phobias  People with a phobia often avoid the object or thinking about it  9% overall prevalence  Women are twice as likely to experience a specific phobia than men  People of Hispanic background are twice as likely than people of Caucasian  background III) What causes Phobias  Behavioral explanations o Phobias occur as a result of  Classical conditioning: two events occur close in time over  repeated pairings and become linked in one’s mind  Stimulus generalization­drawing connections between similar  stimuli and responding the same way to each  Modeling­observation and imitation  Phobias are maintained through avoidance of feared object/situation  Although it appears that a phobia can be acquired in these ways, researchers  have not established that the disorder is only acquired in this way  Behavioral­evolutionary explanation o Attempts to account for why some phobias are so much more common than others o Evolutionarily, or through certain early­life experiences, there is a  predisposition to develop certain fears IV) How are Phobias Treated  Behavioral techniques are most widely used o Exposure treatments  Desensitization  Flooding  Modeling o Highly effective V) Social Phobia  Severe, persistent, and unreasonable fears of social or performance situations  in which embarrassment may occur  Often begin in childhood  Statistics/Prevalence o 7% overall prevalence o Ration of women to men with social phobia­3:2  Treatment for social phobia o Cognitive therapy o Social skills and assertiveness training o Exposure therapy o Drug therapy o Best used in combination Chapter 5: Anxiety Disorders (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) I) Diagnosis  Made up of two components o Obsessions­persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, or images  Common obsessions include dirt/contamination, orderliness,  religion, sexuality, and anger/aggression o Compulsions­repetitive and rigid behaviors people feel they must  perform to prevent or reduce anxiety  Often performed to address obsessions  Most recognize that their behaviors are irrational, yet believe  that catastrophe will occur if they do not perform the  compulsive acts  Common compulsions include cleaning, checking,  balance/orderliness, touching, verbalizations, counting  Symptoms o Recurrent obsessions or compulsion o Recognition that obsessions/compulsions are unreasonable o Cause significant distress and or interfere with daily functioning II) Prevalence and Statistics  1­2% overall prevalence  Equal across men and women and across ethnicity  Usually begins in young adulthood III) Obsessive Compulsive Related Disorders  Hoarding disorder  Hair­pulling disorder  Excoriation disorder (skin picking)  Body dysmorphic disorder IV) Behavioral perspective  Learning by chance o People happen upon compulsion randomly o After repeated associations they believe the compulsion is changing  the situation o The act becomes a key method to avoiding or reducing anxiety  Compulsions are rewarded by a reduction in anxiety  Treatment o Exposure and response prevention  Clients are repeatedly exposed to anxiety­provoking stimuli  and told to resist performing the compulsions  Therapists often mode the behavior  Individual and group settings  Treatment provides significant improvements for most patients  Improvements tend to be long­lasting, continue without  treatment V) Cognitive perspective  People with OCD tend to o Be more depressed than others o Have higher standards of conduct o Experience intrusive thoughts more than others o Believe thoughts=actions o Believe that they should have control over their thoughts and  behaviors o Be more likely to experience anxiety reduction after using neutralizing techniques  Treatment o Psychoeducation o Habituation training o Research suggest a combination of the cognitive and behavioral  models is more effective than either one alone VI) Biological Perspective  Research shows OCD linked in part to genetics (low serotonin levels)  Abnormal functioning in brain regions that processes sensory information  Treatment o Antidepressant drugs  Benefits 50­80% of those with OCD  Relapse tends to occur if medication is stopped o Research suggests that combination therapy may be most effective Chapter 5: Post­Traumatic Stress Disorder I) Diagnosis  The person has been exposed to a traumatic event  The traumatic event is persistently re­experienced in any of the following  ways: o Recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the event,  including images, thoughts, or perceptions o Recurrent distressing dreams of the event o Acting or feeling as if the traumatic event were recurring o Intense psychological distress at exposure to internal or external cues  that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event o Physiological activity to such cues  Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and numbing of  general responsiveness as indicated by 3 or more of the following o Efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, or conversations associated with  the trauma o Efforts to avoid activities, places, or people that arouse recollections of the trauma o Inability to recall an important aspect of the trauma o Markedly diminished interests or participation in significant activities o Feelings of detachment or estrangement  Persistent symptoms of increased arousal as indicated by 2 or more of the  following o Difficulty falling or staying asleep o Irritability or outburst of anger o Difficulty concentrating o Hyper vigilance o Exaggerated startle response  Duration of more than 1 month  The disturbance causes significant distress or impairment in social,  occupational, or other important areas of functioning  Most common treatments for PTSD o Biological treatment­medication o Behavioral­exposure treatment in combination with relaxation training o Group therapy­skill and support groups o Therapy can be a source of consistent support even for those for whom symptoms do not entirely go away


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