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Ling 201 Week 5 Notes

by: Kate Jahaske

Ling 201 Week 5 Notes LING 201

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Linguistics > LING 201 > Ling 201 Week 5 Notes
Kate Jahaske

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Ling 201 Week 5 Notes
Intro to Linguistics
Rachel Brown
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Jahaske on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 201 at University of Arizona taught by Rachel Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro to Linguistics in Linguistics at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
9/26/16 For assignments, do not use any names to protect the privacy of your participants. Also, make sure that your summary is readable. Oral Consonants:  Stop, a complete closure of the airflow (a pause then an explosion)  Fricative, very narrow passage for air to get through (airy or hissing noise)  Affricate, a stop followed by a fricative (one sound but written with two symbols)  Flap, a very brief tap of the tongue (butter, little, data)  Liquid, very open passageway for the air  Glide, an even more open passage for the air  Glottal stop, a complete stop and then continuation (kit'en mount'an) Three nasal noises:  Airflow through the nasal cavity  /m/ /n/ and /ŋ/  When you are considered to be "nasaly" it is actually because you cannot pronounce nasal sounds Three different "r" sounds  /r/ Spanish trill [perro]  /ɹ/ Liquid found in English [road]  /ɾ/ Flap found in Spanish [para] 9/21/16 Index of Syntheses  Determines the amount of affixes, or morphemes  Synthetic would have the most o Polysynthetic languages would have entire sentences as one word  Isolating languages limit their affix usage Index of fusion  Determines how distinct the morphemes are.  I.e. one morpheme and one meaning would be agglutinative  Fusional morphemes would have many meanings and definitions to one morphemes Phonological Reduction  Reduction of pronunciation in words  Going to -> gonna There is a great mismatch between English spelling and pronunciation. We have 26 letters, but more than 40 sounds. The English writing system cannot describe all the sounds that English speakers use in oral speech. Homophone: a word which sounds identical to anther word, but is unrelated to it. Phonetics: the study of speech sounds. For instance, how words are said and what is going on in a mouth when words are being said. International Phonological Alphabet (IPA): an alphabet that has separate letters for each sound, or one symbol for each sound. There are no silent letters and all sounds are the exact same every time.  IPA symbols are written between // or [] Articulation:  Air is pushed out through the lungs and then travels up through the larynx and then through the vocal tract.  The result is sound, and more specifically, two main categories of sounds, consonants and vowels. Consonants vs vowels  Consonants require some type of obstruction either by: o Throat tightening o Tongue o Lips  Vowels are produced when the airflow in not obstructed. The location of the symbol matters because it tells you important information about the sound. In a single cell, left is voiceless, right is voiced. You can tell if a voice sound (a phone) is voiced or not by feeling your throat and seeing if you can feel the vibration. To describe a consonant;  Voicing + place (in the mouth) + manner  [b] = voiced bilabial stop  [j] = voiced palatal glide Larynx  Whether or not a sound is voiced or voiceless pertains to if the larynx is vibrating or not. If the muscles that operate the arytenoids are loose, air simply passes through with no voice. If the muscles are tight, then the sound is voiced.  Bernoulli effect allows your larynx "vibrate" without the muscles actually going back and forth quick enough to make noise When air goes in between them, the muscles want to go closer together. Articulators:  Lips  Teeth  Tongue o Tip o Blade o Body o Back o root  Alveolar ridge  Palate (hard palate)  Velum (soft palate)  Uvula  Pharynx  Epiglottis  Larynx  Glottis (space in between the vocal chords) Corresponding Place Terms to Articulators  Labial (lips)  Bilabial (in between the lips)  Labio-dental (lip touches the teeth)  Interdental (tongue in between the teeth)  Dental (touching the teeth)  Alveolar (alveolar ridge)  Alveopalatal/postalveolar (in between alveolar and palatal)  Palatal  Velar  Uvlar (English does not have this)  Pharyngeal (English does not have this)  Glottal The language of which you are familiar with very much impacts how you hear these sounds. Also, every person is different and may not pronounce a sound at the exact same spot as everyone else.


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