General Psychology lecture 2 notes
General Psychology lecture 2 notes 01:830:101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emy Cabera on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:830:101 at Rutgers University taught by Prof. Persing in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Pyschology in Psychology (PSYC) at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Lecture 2 General Psychology Psychological experimentation - Placebo Effects:Aplacebo is a substance with no known medical effects, such as sterile water, saline solution or a sugar pill. In short, a placebo is a fake treatment that in some cases can produce a very real response. (When you think your getting something and your not). Would it actually work though? - Experimenter Bias: The experimenter may introduce cognitive bias into a study in several ways. In what is called the observer-expectancy effect, the experimenter may subtly communicate their expectations for the outcome of the study to the participants, causing them to alter their behavior to conform to those expectations. (Ex;Aprofessor gives children all the same rats to test their speeds, however, he lies to them and tells them 50 of the rats are smart and 50 are stupid. Because of this the results of the rats who finished the race first will be biased and inaccurate. Because students will think the “smart” rats will finish first and the “stupid” will be last.) - Double blind: Experimenter is blind to what he or she is giving out. The participant is also blind to what they will be receiving. When no one knows what they will be experimenting, that way it avoids experimenter bias. - Review Slide 36 powerpoint 1 for clarification - Ethics in Psychology ——-> Pilgrim Study (Shocking Experiment)Are experiments like these ethically right? Should experiments like these be done? - (IRB) Institutional Review Board: To keep psychological experiments ethical and make sure the experiments are safe. Behavioral Neuroscience - Neurons receive signal and send signals. - Sends signals to other neurons, muscles, or or.ans - The brain contains about one hundred billion neurons. - Glial cell - Fills the gaps between neurons, Supports and feeds neurons ,10 times more glial cells than neurons, Newer research suggests that Glia does more - Synapse: Site (Gap) where a nerve impulse is transmitted from one neuron to another; includes the axon terminal, synaptic cleft, and receptor sites on receiving cell. Pre-synaptic Neuron- Sends info Post- synaptic- receives info The Structure of the Neuron • Dendrite: Branches that receive signals and transmit to cell body • Cell Body: Controls cell metabolism and determines firing • Axon: Carries impulses away from cell body • Myelin Sheath: Fatty insulation - Neurotransmitters are released into synaptic cleft. - Bind to receptor site on receiving neuron - Electrical state of receiving neuron changes - Neural Communication actually takes 1-2 milliseconds. - Thalamus relays all senses except smell because smells goes straight up to your brain. - NTs and Receptors: - Excitatory- Excitatory neurons often form long-range connections. Excitatory cells largely form from precursors that are next to the ventricles; as they are born, they move upwards, towards the pial surface, and form the developing cortex. - Inhibitory- Inhibitory neurons make local connections. Different subtypes of inhibitory neurons will synapse on different parts of their targets. Inhibitory cells, in contrast, are born in the MGE and LGE (medial and lateral ganglionic eminences, respectively) and migrate into great distances into cortex and hippocampus. - Reuptake- NT goes back into presynaptic cell. - Degradation- Extra NT is destroyed. - Major Neurotransmitters: - Acetylcholine (ACh)- enables muscle action , learning, memory - Dopamine- influences movement, learning , attention, emotion - Serotonin- affects mood, hunger and sleep. - Norepinephrine -AKAAdrenaline - Gamma amino (Gaba)- inhibitory neuron - Drugs and the Brain: • Agonist • Antagonist • Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)
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