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INTS 201, Week 4 Reading Notes

by: Christina Roberts

INTS 201, Week 4 Reading Notes INTS 201

Marketplace > Texas A&M University > INTS 201 > INTS 201 Week 4 Reading Notes
Christina Roberts
Texas A&M
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About this Document

These notes are over the reading from Chapter 10 of Thinking Globally.
Dr. Dinah Hannaford
Class Notes
Global Studies




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Roberts on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to INTS 201 at Texas A&M University taught by Dr. Dinah Hannaford in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 144 views.


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Date Created: 09/27/16
INTS 201: Chapter 10 Reading Notes Global Forces in the New World Order OVERVIEW - Big changes began after the end of the Cold War and the Berlin wall coming down in November of 1989. This was the most visible symbol of the ending of the idealogical war between superpowers. - Transformations in technology, communications, and global economy kept the trend of globalization going and weakened the traditional nation-state and gave way to backlash of local movements to protect traditional ethnic and political ideas. - In the book Jihad vs. McWorld, Benjamin Barber describes two ways the world is going. McWorld describes Westernized consumer culture associate with the fast food chains, music videos, and other technology. Jihad in Arabic means “struggle” and Barber uses this word to be a symbol of a certain sort of radical political ideology that defends traditional views on faith and society. - Barber’s opinion of these two directions is that neither will lead to democratic society, but actually lead to anarchism. - In The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, by Samuel Huntington, he proposes that the global competition post Cold War comes from differing cultures. This was referred to as the “Huntington Thesis”. • After 9/11, the Huntington Thesis was a primary intellectual concept behind the “War on Terror”. It gave credibility to the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq, two Islamic countries. - In Empire, authors Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri propose that large-scale political organization was brought about by empires and not nation-states or cultures. Jihad vs. McWorld Notes - There are two scenarios presented. One is of culture being pitted against culture and against modernity itself and the future that comes with modernity. The second is of a shinny future with demands of integration and uniformity that capture people with fast food, music and computers. 1 - “The planet is falling precipitously apart and coming reluctantly together at the very same moment.” (pg. 201) - Both of these competing ideas are at work in the world, sometimes visibly and sometimes not. A Multipolar, Multicivilizational World (Samuel Huntington) Notes - “In the post-Cold War world, the most important distinctions among peoples are not ideological, political, or economic. They are cultural.” (pg. 202) - Culture is both a dividing factor and a unifying force. Many times people can be divided by differing ideologies, but can be unified by culture. Countries with similar cultures cooperate economically and politically. - Major differences in politics and economics among civilizations are very much rooted in their respective cultures. - The central point of post Cold War world is the strained interaction of Western power and culture versus the power and culture of non-Western countries. Empire Notes - “Our basic hypothesis is that sovereignty has taken a new form, composed of a series of national and supranational organisms united under a single logic of rule. This new gobble form of sovereignty is what we call Empire.” (pg. 205) - One cause for this coming empire is the inability of nation-states to regulate and sustain economic and cultural exchanges. - Empire does not mean imperialism. “Imperialism was really an extension of the sovereignty of the European nation-states beyond their own boundaries.” The way to Empire comes from modern sovereignty and has no territorial center of power and has no physical boundaries. It is “decentered and deterritorialized”. - “In the post modernization of the global economy, the creation of wealth tends ever more toward what we will call biopolitical production, the production of social life itself, in which the economic, the political, and the cultural increasingly overlap and invest one another.” (pg. 206) 2 - It is sometimes seen that the United States is the ultimate authority over globalization. But the authors say that the “United States does not, and indeed no nation-state can today, form the center of an imperials project”. They think that imperialism is over. - However the United States does hold a privileged and primary position in the Empire because of it’s differences from the old European imperialist powers. - “Empire not only manages a territory and population but also creates the very world it inhabits. It not only regulates human interactions but also seeks directly to rule over human nature. The object of its rule is social life in its entirety, and thus Empire presents the paradigmatic form of biopower.” (pg. 207) Global Cities (Saskia Sassen) Notes - The city has emerged as a very strategic place for new trends in the social order of today’s era. The metropolitan region has become a place where macro social trends form and can be studied on a global scale. - “The concept of the city is complex, imprecise, and charged with specific historical meanings. A more abstract notion might be centrality, present in all cities, and in turn, something that cities have historically given to societies.” (pg. 209) - Major business centers in the world gain their importance from the transnational networks that appear in large, highly developed cities. - There is no single global city but in modern times, there are over a 100 major cities that have major international financial and business power. - We can no longer think of skyscrapers and tall business towers as the center of international business anymore. Not only is the power found in their telecommunications and foreign firms, it is found in different cultural environments. Cities and Political Subjectivity - In Max Weber’s The City, he states that cities are a set of social structures that will ultimately promote individuality and creativity which produces change. - He thought that the modern city is dominated by large manufacturing companies and office bureaucracies. 3 - When cities struggle with issues in politics, economics, or culture, they start to develop solutions and advancements. - “Current conditions in global cities are creating not only new structurations of power but also operational and rhetorical openings for new types of political actors that may have been submerged, invisible, or without voice. A key element of the argument here is that the localization of strategic components of globalization in these cities mean that the disadvantage can engage the new forms of globalized corporate power, and second, that the growing numbers and diversity of the disadvantaged in theses cities take on a distinctive ‘presence’.” (pg. 213) 4


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