Syria-Palestine Religion INT 296 E
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharine Anthony on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to INT 296 E at Pace University taught by Prof. Lundquist and Prof. Roland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Holy Nationalism in Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences at Pace University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
INT296E_09_27_2016 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 2:24 PM Syncretism: Two religions in one in theory, in practice they perform the rituals of both religions. Henotheism: Belief in many gods but one is above all the others. Monotheism: Belief in only truly one God. Polytheism: Belief in many gods EB=3150-2200 BCE MB= 2100-1550 LB= 1550-1200 IRON I-1200-918 IRON II= 918-539 PERSIAN=539-332 BCE 332 BCE is important because it is the ascension of Alexander the Great Within Egypt we have the Dynasty timeline and in the Mesopotamian we have their dynasty timeline. Within Syria-Palestine however we have the timeline above based on the history of tool creation. Phoenician alphabet is the root of all alphabets. Synchronism The bible has its own internal chronology but it has to be connected to outside chronologies for it to be workable. We need synchronism for it to work. Ex. Shamaneser III's black obelisk ( conquest of Jaehoo of Israelite Kingdom) 858 BCE. This causes us to create our own chronology. Ex. Medinet Habu, funerary temple of Rameses III, the Sea peoples are invading and he is fighting them. The date of this (LB) In the whole middle east all the great empires in the middle east collapsed in 1200 BCE. Groups of aristocrats and others invaded. He repelled these people. o Egyptians fascinated by the ethnic races of the world and depicted them with their ethnic dress and hairdos. The important group is the Peleshet. Palestine (specifically in Sinai) From archaeological excavations at the beginning of the Iron period there is an influx of people from the outside. This correlates with the Israelite tribes end of wandering. According to the israelites the 12 tribes divided Caanan. o This is after they stop the Caananites. After they defeat the Caananites they fight the Phillistines. In Iron One, King David controlled the United Kingdom of Israel, his power was so large it went to Damascus. All the areas speak Semitic languages. Kingdom of Ungarit In the 20th century French archaeologists discovered the greatest civilization ever. o Ras Shamra in present day Cuneifrom tablets found in the past 70 years. Was destroyed during the major distruction of civilizations. Language almost the same as biblical hebrew Various gods of the Ugarit peoples ILU El- "The Bull EL" Astarte Asherah Anat = Baal - The rider of /on the clouds Ilu is just the overlying God. El o Old man with a long beard o Ugarat depictions of El give us our view of G*d o Epithet is "The Bull EL" Fertility Fecundity The False idol in the Book of Moses that the Israelites began to worship El as Moses was on Mount Sinai getting the Ten Commandments Father Baal o Rider of the clouds Weather Astarte o Queen of Heaven Asherah o Fertility o Sacred tree Anat o Blood thirsty demonic goddess o Wades in blood up to her knees Yamm o Seq Mot o Death Ugarit language o Poems Much deeper understanding of the poetry of the Hebrew bible. Book of Judges Chapter 5 Song of Deborah Genesis 1-10 o Mythological part o Afterwards it is historical periods of life Abraham has Sarah and Hagar as wives, He has Ismael with Hagar and Isaac with Sarah. Isaac has Jacob o Abraham has a covenant with G*d the covenant is expanded upon by Moses. David begins to prepare to make a temple for G*d o Lebanon for Cedar o Other places for the riches and everything o David however cannot build this temple. o His son Solomon does build the temple. After his death there is a fissure. Judea and Israel become separate states. The Assyrian king puts the 10 tribes into exile, the southern kingdom stays the way it is. Nebecenzzer destroys southern kingdom. Cyrus the great sends them home. 2 Kings Chapter 21 verse 1 o Northern and Southern Kingdoms o Judea and Jerusalem has the king Menasha Made altars for Baal and also made Asherah trees. Built altars in the house of the LORD Practiced soothsaying and dealt with wizards Names for G*d in the Jewish Bible o YHWH o Jehovah o LORD o Elohim Plural Plural of Majesty o Adonai Elohim The Lord God o Ha Shem o El Shaddai Theophoric name - a God bearing name o We can discover the changes and shifts in population's ethnicity. o Saul had Johnathon and Ishbaal Ishbaal - son of Baal Johnathon - Yaaaah is in it God is married to Israel in the bible o Apparently Israel is a whore. Apparently especially likes Assyrian men Temple of Solomon The temple is the architectural realization of all three worlds, underworld, earth and heavens. In all these ancient traditions, especially in Judaism there is a heavenly temple (tabnit= pattern of the heavenly temple) Many temple plans that archaelogists have uncovered which are super similar to the temple of Solomon. TANAKH o Torah (Pentateuch ) o Nebiim (prophets) o Khetubim (writings) Based on sacrifice of animals , blood in atonement of sin Altar of burnt offering Basin of water for cleansing Straight axis temple o Heirarchy of the sons of Levi, they have the priestly authority Aaron High priesthood Once a year on Yom Kippur the priest goes in with blood Porch( ulam) and Bronze pillars with Hebrew fore church (heikal= temple) Inner temple Debir- holy of holies o Has the ark of the covenant o Cheribim- Kerib protect First temple destroyed by the Babylonians o Bronze pillars melted down o The gilding was melted down o Ark of the covenant was forever lost Second Temple o Cyrus the great told them to take their taken objects and leave and make a new temple. o Destroyed 70 CE Jewish men were commanded to come to the temple three times a year o Passover o Shavuot (Pentacost) o Sukat booth Theodicy The Jewish people believed they were safe and the Prophets were sorta there to tell them "You still have to follow the rules." The destruction of the temple was a tragedy and the Book of Lamentations show the grief that they think that God has forsaken them. Theodicy o God Justice, is God just Is G*D just if he allows innocents to be injured? Book of Job is the central source to try and figure out this dilemma. Gods having a debate, Satan is there o God and Satan have a debate on Job with how great Job is and Satan's like "He worships you because he has everything." Job loses literally everything. His wife is not having any of it. "Why did God do this to Job." o Happy and prosperous = being blessed and if im suffering im sinful is wrong. Not the way to think Apocalyptic o End of the world and what's gonna happen at the end of the world. o During this life of woe, age, death. We can't expect ultimate or extreme justic
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