Popular in Israel/Palestine: Heritage/Challenge
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharine Anthony on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 209 at Pace University taught by Professor Roland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Israel/Palestine: Heritage/Challenge in History at Pace University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
09_21_2016 Wednesday, September 21, 2016 1:30 PM Current Events Netanyahu speech at the UN Obama says that the best thing for Israel is a peaceful viable Palestine state. o Now that Israel got this grant of 3.8 billion a year, Obama might try a conference or create a framework for peace. Israel hoping for a resolution from the UN Lots of stabbings in Israel o 13-14 year old girls mainly involved with them o It picked up again in the last few days The Israelis shot down a Hammas drone Times Article on Syria o Basic questions and answers about the Syrian civil war The Arab Story Israel was not named such until 1948 beforehand it was called Palestine. Abbasid Period (750-1258) More advanced than Europeans o Science Medical Chemistry Biology o Lots of optics work Invented cataract removal o Mathematics o Preserved the ancient Greek texts Travel Geography When the Ottoman Empire takes control o The Turkish culture and empire makes it disappear. In the mid-19th century Arab culture starts to return. o European missionaries come into Lebanon and Syria in the mid-19th century , they want to strengthen the Christianity in the Middle East. They build schools and universities. The French draw in the Maronites and teach French. The Russians in Russian with the Greek Orthodox o American Protestant missionaries are catalysts to Arab culture revival with translating the bible into Arabic (which was hard because classical Arabic wasn't spoken anymore but they were speaking colloquial Arabic. Moroccan Arabic super different than Iraqi Arabic. They modernized classical Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic) Then they teach in Arabic, then later to English. That's a lot more interesting for the local Arabs. Universite san Joseph Syrian Protestant College (Now American University of Beirut) o At these schools they start discussing politics and culture. They start being dissatisfied by the Ottoman Turkish rule in the late 19th century. Most aren't thinking of becoming independent at WWI Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine Palestine is special because of Jerusalem Muslims, Christians and Jews are all interested in Palestine and Jerusalem. Palestinians in particularly are wary of non- Muslim foreigners bc of imperialism (Crusades). They were fine with individual Jews coming in, but they didn't want a homeland or state happening. It was not because of Zionism, it's a reaction to Europeans coming in before the Jews. The Arab inhabitants of Palestine see themselves separate from Arabs First Encounters Zionists o Didn't think of the Palestinians o Didn't see a threat. o The land laws Land has to be registered in 1858, the wealthy could do this because they had proof and the poor Arabs could not because the fact the land had been passed down. The Zionists buy the land from the wealthy landowners and the share croppers are kicked off. Even if the share croppers aren't kicked off there are conflicts over borders, land, and water. There were also some good relationships between the early Jewish settlers. They'd celebrate with eachother. By the 1890's the tension begins to build up here. The Zionist attitude towards the Arabs and the conflict is "a land without people for people without a land". This'll be good for the Arabs too. Many Arabs found work in Israel in the Mandate period Well, it doesn't matter, we're gonna build up our national home they have to adjust. Few predicted this was going to not work out well. Arabs o Really worried o Some of the conflicts we talked about above. o The petitioned to the Ottoman Empire to put a hold on all immigration of Jewish immigrants. The Ottomans said stop coming in to make a state. o Articles in the early 20th century Arab Nationalism taking a real spurt because everyone hates what's happening about that. In 1908 in the Ottoman Empire, Young Turk Revolt (not all young and not all Turkish wanted more representation and everything) The young Turks overthrow the Ottoman Sultan Lots were behind them. Once the Young Turks going into power they want Turkification. This gets the Arab angry, they had sort of a honeymoon with this beforehand. Arab members of the parliament try and stop this immigration. Najeet Azuri-1905 WWI In Palestine/Israel, there are 94,000 Jews and 689,000 total. The Jews are political zionists The Palestinians up to 1914 are thinking of themselves of something special. Other Arabs want out of the Ottoman Empire. Germany, Austria- Hungary and (well italy is supposed to) then the Ottoman Empire England, France Russia (then Italy, and the US) Allies The Ottoman Empire joins because they hate Russia o Gallipoli Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) ottoman leader The Arab revolt did occur. Not all Arabs were ready to revolt against the Ottoman Empire. o They bomb the railroads (Important railroad that came down from Turkey to Syria and the Western Coast) Faysal and Abdullah Lawrence of Arabia o The Allies won the middle East because the Egyptian forces coming up from Cairo through Jerusalem and further into the Turkish Empire. Allenby Three major agreements o Sykes-Picot (1916) (secret) They decide how they're going to divide the Middle East. British interested in lower Iraq To get to India easier France wants Lebanon and Upper Turkey and influence in Syria Palestine/Israel an international zone o Husayn-MacMahon (secret) Husayn is the ruler of the Eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The British and French tell him to revolt against the turks we'll give you aid and advice and also we'll give you independent kingdom. They don't agree on what will be the Arab kingdom. The disagree about Palestine. o Balfour Declaration (not secret) Letter from Lord Balfour to Lord Lionel Rothchild Promises a Jewish National Home in Palestine. They're not going to take away the rights of the existing non- Jewish peoples, but the rights are civil and religious but won't protect their political rights. The Jews who are living in elsewhere will be able to stay in their countries there is no pressure to send them there. This was made public for a few reasons Russia is dealing with the Bolshevik revolution They pull out USA joining the war o These three are not contradictory in the letter of the law but they are in the spirit of the law. End of World War I Treaty of Versailles o Peace conference is in Paris France, Italy, Britain, US there. All other allies are also there but they're not suuuper important Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire were not invited. Treaty of Nouye Treaty of Sevres o They take territory away from the Ottomans. What are they gonna do with Syria and Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq? The mandate system is used. The League of Nations and the 14 point Plan Self-determination of an own nation happened with European nations in the Austro-Hungarian empire The countries are placed in charge of mother countries but to prepare them for independence. France got Syria and Lebanon Britain got Palestine, Transjordan, Iraq 1930 Iraq was independent Lebanon and Syria become independent after world war 2 The Mandate Period 1919-1939 o British Policy in Palestine Mandate Document that lays out the plans for Palestine. What it is gonna do in Palestine . The preamble is the Balfour Declaration. Every single cause but three refers to what they're gonna do to enable Jews to build up their national home. Three articles only give any idea that people are there. Official languages are to be Hebrew, Arabic and English All religious shrines are respected and protected All archaeological sites of all groups will be protected. If you look at British policy from this time, there is a pattern. Jews come in. Arabs revolt. British send in commission, Commission goes back and says that Arabs are unhappy. British colonial government giving policy statement called the White Paper. o The White Papers Churchill, head of the Colonial Office and issues the first white paper (1922) First, don't worry we're not gonna make Palestine super Jewish, we don't want Arabs to be hurt so we'll limit Jewish immigration to the economic absorptive capacity of Palestine They all agree except for the small group called Revisionists (Jabotinsk) they didn't want any compromise at all. The British lop off TransJordan from Palestine. TransJordan given to Abdullah and becomes Emir. Eventually he creates and independent state of Jordan. It was closed to Jewish immigrants.
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