Biology for majors week 5 notes
Biology for majors week 5 notes Bio 1130
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tasha Nelson on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1130 at East Tennessee State University taught by Jennifer Price in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Biology for Science Majors 3 in Biology at East Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Macroevolution evolution on a scale of separated gene pools. Change that happens at the level of the species. Vs Micro evolution that refers to the small changes in a species or a population.. Given the time, the small changes begin to add up to show the evolutionary changes that we see today in many species. Biological Evolution Microevolution short term (Changes in alleles) Selevtion, mutation, drifs. Macro longer term –results in speciation Species: Morphological definition: Failure to recognize natural variation in a population: typological view vs. populational view Biological definitio Actually or potentially interbreeding populations. Intercommunicating GENE POOL GENE FLOW Reproductively isolated from other groups Limitation: Asexual reproduction/ hybridization Phylogenetic definition: Species groupings based on: Evolutionary past, unique characteristics not found in other groups. Species: smallest grouping of organisms that share ancestry and descent. Very important when studying the different evolutionary concepts! Monophyletic: all individuals within a grouping from same ancestor. 9/27/16 Speciation: the process by which new species arise. Can change one species into another or splitting of one ancestral species into tow descendant species This may be a gradual process. If populations are reproductively isolated long enough then eventually the genetic differences build up in a way that they can no longer successfully interbreed with one another. Genetic differences may accure from DRIFT, SELECTION, and MUTATION.. “Species” are made up of populations that may start to exhibit morphological differences. When they are isolated and can’t interbreed the populations start to look quite different. After a while the mating process may change to where those different species don’t want to mate with one another anymore. Reproductive isolation If species are defined by the existence of reproductive isolation, then the process of speciation is identical to the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms. Happens by: Random changes, Genetic drift in small populations Founder effects Populations bottlenecks Selective adaptation Populations accumulate differences based on different environments that may lead to reproductive isolation. Geography of speciation Speciation is a 2 part process 1. Initially identical populations must diverge 2. Reproductive isolation must evolve to maintain these differences Homogenizing effect of gene flow erases differences Speciation more likely in geographically isolated species Modes of speciation: Allopatric speciation: Occurs when one population is geographically isolated from other populations. Sympatric Speciation: a population develops into two or more reproductively isolated groups without prior geographic isolation. Adaptive radiation: Closely related species that have recently evolved from a common ancestor by adapting to different parts of the environment.
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