Neuropsychology Week 4 Lecture 1 Notes
Neuropsychology Week 4 Lecture 1 Notes 01:830:310
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rahma Mbarki on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:830:310 at Rutgers University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Neuropsychology in Psychology at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Circle of willis ● Fact that it’s a circle → allows for a bit of backup supply if one of the arteries are blocked ● Can get backup supply via the circle (collateral circulation) Major Arterial Supply of Principal Structures Frontal Lobe ● Dictates memorization, attention, decision making, what you will essentially do in life ● Vascularized (Blood is supplied to) by middle cerebral artery in the Lateral surface ● vascularized by anterior cerebral artery in medial surface ● vascularized by middle and anterior cerebral arteries in inferior surface Temporal Lobe ● vascularized by middle cerebral artery in lateral surface ● by middle and posterior cerebral arteries in medial surface ● by posterior cerebral artery in inferior surface Middle cerebral artery is important since it goes inside and vascularizes the interior of the brain ● most likely to stroke Parietal Lobe ● vascularized by middle cerebral artery in lateral surface ● by anterior cerebral artery in medial surface Occipital Lobe ● vascularized by posterior cerebral artery on all surfaces If you have a stroke very early on in the blood flow, basal ganglia gets affected basal ganglia, temporal, frontal, parietal lobes have loss of function Blood - Brain Barrier ● Oxygen → fuel → energy ● Blood is close to any neuron, neurons run everything (such as the twitch of your fingers) Blood brain barrier ● Stops any old molecule that’s made it into your blood (such as toxins, little parasites) ● In the case of tissue it provides extra protection ● Inside of a blood vessel is endothelial cells (normally have some openings in between them) ● In the brain there are tight junctions (glued together more carefully) ○ any unnecessary object floating cannot enter brain due to this ● Astrocytes cover the endothelial cells (2nd layer of protection) Problem for people that make medication ● Some medications must get across the blood brain barrier ● Pharmacists spend a lot of time trying to figure out how to get into the blood brain barrier In a lot of cases the brain wants to know the concentrations of chemicals in the blood Hypothalamus → doesn’t have blood brain barrier Area postrema gets rid of toxic things ingested/that had gotten into the body ● makes you vomit everything else Spinal Cord Spinal cord runs through all the holes in the vertebrae, doesn’t reach all the way down ● Can think of it as divided into segments ● Each segment has a pair of nerves, one on each side, coming out of the spinal cord (spinal nerves) ● There are 31 spinal cord segments ○ 8 cervical ○ 12 thoracic segments ○ 5 lumbar ○ 5 sacral ○ 1 coccygeal Spinal cord runs through the spine ● Spine is made of vertebrae ○ Spinal cord runs through the hole (foramen) of the vertebrae → picture of vertebra Nerves ● Nerves innervate (provide nerves for certain areas) ● Picture shows what parts of body are innervated by certain spinal nerve Sacrum → 5 spinal nerves (buttocks and back of legs) Lumbar Puncture Cerebral Spinal Fluid taken out from the spinal cord ● Spinal nerves need to keep travelling in order to exit ● Lumbar puncture/Spinal Tap → done in lower back ○ Person bends over, so spinous processes move away from each other, and then there will be a gap with which a needle is punctured ○ Pia ends fairly high up, arachnoid is further down ■ Needle goes between 2 meninges and collect CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) ○ Can gain good information from CSF, such as what is circulating in the brain ○ Sugar/Glucose can be measure, as well as different types of bacteria ● Epidural space in the back is actually around the dura ○ Epidural → infuse anesthetic around the dura and not IN the dura Motor Neuron in PNS A motor neuron will innervate a muscle fiber Cell body located in gray matter of spinal cord, axon reaches all the way down to your toe (1.3 meters) ● Axon can be this because it goes from whatever it innervates to the cell body ○ Efferent Pictured Below: Sensory Neuron in PNS ● Afferent ● Sends information from periphery (tip of your fingers) ● We have a lot of different structures in skin that react to touch/pressure (mechanical contortions) ● Information then gets sent by the axon to the cell body of a sensory neuron (not in the spinal cord, a little outside of it) ● Sensory neurons are afferent, dorsal root ganglion, special structures at the end of them Pictured Below: Paired system, get a spinal nerve on each side Sensory information comes in, travels on, and connects in gray matter of the spinal cord (afferent, going TO the brain) efferent (AWAY from brain), sends out its axon away from the brain Sensory info comes in the dorsal part of the spinal cord gray matter is where cell bodies are There are dorsal and ventral horns Dorsal → smaller Ventral → larger Nerves coming out of the spinal cord have to travel quite far down before they exit through the vertebra White matter → axons Gray matter → cell bodies More and more traffic going up and down Spinal Cord Injuries Top 3 causes of spinal cord damage ● Motor vehicle accidents ● Accidents working ● Sporting/Recreation Extent of Damage ● If damage is above C3 you need a ventilator ● Below C7 in order to function independently ● Cell replacement, repair, rehabilitation