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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chioma Anyanti on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 201630 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Harvill in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see BIO 1305 03 in Science at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Chapter 14 Reductionism Producers, consumers, decomposers Prokaryotic cells are smaller because they have a smaller surface area The central dogma of proteins is DNA> RNA> Proteins (transcription) DNA deoxy ribose sugars, Nucleotide phosphate, ribose sugar Positive and negative feedback mechanisms Negative Feedback Your body reduces the stimulus by slowing down a process Positive feedback is rare childbirth, oxytocin and platelet cascade 1.What is the purpose of a having a control group in an experiment? 1 Species showed evidence of descent with modificationevolution Most organisms produce more organisms that actually survive Species are adapted for their environment They have heritable traits 1 What was the mechanism? Natural selection (survival of the fittest) 2 How does population size change according to Darwin? Competition, and they change by the amount of resources available in the environment, and the amount of predators in the environment 3 Elements that make up 96% of matter? Carbon, hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen 4 Domains are? Bacteria, archaea, eukaryote 5 Trace elements are essential elements 6 What are trace elements? Elements that are only found in small amounts 7 Describe the four types of chemical bonds??? Covalent bonds are the physical sharing electrons between two nonmetals Ionic bonds are the unequal sharing of ions Attraction of the partially positive hydrogen to and the electronegative atom of some other molecule: usually fluorine, nitrogen and oxygen) Van der waals interaction (geckos use this to stick to the walls) 1 Van der waals 2 Covalent, ionic, hydrogen, van der waals: strongest to weekends 3 Intermolecular bonding is hydrogen and van der waals 4 Intramolecular bonding is covalent and ionic bonds 5 Equation for photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O > C6H12O6 + 6O2. 6 Difference between compounds and elements? Elements are all the things on the periodic table and compounds are two elements together 7 Diatomic elements are? Bromine, Iodine, Nitrogen, Chlorine, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Fluorine. Ways to remember them are:( BrINClHOF) and Have No Fear Of Ice Cold Beer. 8 Protons always equal electrons if it has a charge then it is ionic 9 Carbon13 is an isotope, because it has a different number of neutrons than the parent element 10 What is responsible for elements chemical properties? The number of valence electrons. 11 What is responsible for most emergent properties of water? Hydrogen bonding 12 Cohesion is? Water's attraction for other water molecules 13 Adhesion is? Waters attraction for another surface 14 Surface tension is a result of waters cohesive behaviors 15 What gives water the ability to moderate temperature? Waters specific heat. 16 Waters specific heat is? The amount of energy it takes to raise water one degrees Celsius. 17 Describe evaporative cooling? As water evaporates it takes the heat energy with it, leaving the surface a lot cooler. 18 What property of water allows fish to survive in lakes during the winter? It expands upon freezing, because of hydrogen bonding. It forms an ice lattice and the densest water would be found at the bottom of the water. 19 What's the densest form of water? 4 degrees Celsius 20 How does water dissolve particles so well? Polar particles pull hydrogen bonds 21 PH less than 7 is an acid and greater than 7 is a base… The amount of hydronium in 22 Acids have a high H+ concentration and a low OH concentration 23 Bases have a high OH and a low H+ concentration 24 PH= log[H+] 25 PH+=POH+ subtract by 14 26 Buffers? Regulates the PH level, maintains a very narrow PH level 27 What are the covalent bonds in water? Between hydrogen and Oxygen 28 The hydrogen bonds in water are? Between two water molecules 29 III the dashes are hydrogen bonding 30 Which element is found in all organic molecules? Carbon 31 What is Stanley Millers experiment? He made an organic molecule abiotic ally 32 Hydrocarbons = hydrophobic, nonpolar, and release a lot of energy if bonds are broken. 41.What is an isomer? Chemically the same and but different structures. 1 Recognize examples of the different types of isomers and what they look like. 2 Ldopa are examples of enantiomers 3 Cis vs. trans enantiomers 4 Phosphate, carboxyl, carbonyl, amino, sulfhydryl, hydroxyl, phosphate 5 Hydroxyl polar, hydrophilic FREE RESPONSE amino acid page in chapter 5, be able to recognize the amino acid be able to recognize if it is polar non polar, basic or acidic. Be able to circle the functional groups. (going to have an amino group and a carboxyl group) LOOK AT PAGE 77 1 Carbonyl are either ketone or aldehyde (a carbonyl group is a carbon double bonded to an oxygen. Aldehyde is at the end of a chain of carbon, ketoses is within the chain of carbon 1. Carboxyl COOH (it is really acidic) 2. Amino acid is NH2 it is basic 3. Sulfhydryl forms a cross link (disulfide bridges) that help stabilize protein structures 4. Phosphate groups is a negative molecule and it is in ATP so it releases a lot of energy when the bond is broken between the two. 5. Methyl is used for identification in your body and gene expression 6. What is DNA methylation? 7. Define a monomer? A single repeating unit that makes up a polymer 8. The monomer of a carbohydrate is glucose= the monomer is considered a fully functional macromolecule of that group. 9. How are polymers synthesized and broken down? Dehydration synthesis is done by removing a water molecule and hydrolysis is done by adding a water molecule 10. Large molecules that contain carbons are held together by ? Macromolecules 11. Macromolecules are held together by covalent bonds Dehydration synthesis 12. Carbohydrates: Monomers? Monosaccharides Polymers? Polysaccharides Held together? Glycolic linkages Function: storage glycogen and starch (alpha and beta) structure: chitin and cellulose 1. Lipids Held together? Ester linkages Function: storage Fats Phospholipids are a dynamic structure, that are held together by hydrophobic interactions (two fatty acids and a phosphate group), they are antiheroic Steroids has 4 carbon rings (look at picture) maintains homeostasis in the body Saturated fats have a higher melting point than the unsaturated fats Unsaturated have the double bonds present Saturated don’t have a double bond 1. Lipids are considered macromolecules that don’t have monomers or polymers and all macromolecules are hydrophobic 2. Steroids look like a honey comb 3. Proteins Monomer? Amino acid Polymer? Poly peptides Held together? Peptide bonds Function? Lots of things 1. What makes up proteins? Primary level held together by peptide bonds Secondary is alpha helix and fold into beta pleated sheets held together by hydrogen bonds Tertiary level is held together by hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges, and van der wall interactions Quaternary is driven by hydrophobic interactions 1. Which level of protein structures involves one peptide/primary, secondary, and tertiary 2. Which level of protein structures denatures? 2,3,4 3. What helps to renature a protein? Chaperonin 4. Peptide chains have an N terminus and a C terminus (nitrogen and carbon) 5. What determines the shape of the folded protein? The amino acid sequence string 6. Nucleic acids Monomers? (nucleotides) Phosphate, nitrogenous base, and pentose sugar Polymer? Nucleic acids Held together? Phosphodiester bonds is single strand Held together? Hydrogen bonds hold together two strands of DNA 1. Purines? Adenine and guanine 2. Pyridines? Cytosine, thymine and uracil 3. C pairs with G and A pairs with T 4. G and C are held together by 3 hydrogen bonds 5. RNA has uracil 6. A and T are held together by 2 7. DNA is held in the nucleus and it lasts longer because it is held in in a double bond 8. Which of these classes of biological molecules consist of both small molecules and macromolecular polymers? carbohydrates
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