PSY 270 Chapter 5 notes
PSY 270 Chapter 5 notes PSY 270
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Grissom on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
Definitions Examples Important information Chapter 5: Physical Development in Infants Principles of Growth: 1) Cephalocaudal Principle Developing from the head to the tail This explains why heads are much larger and out of proportion in younger children; it’s fully developed first 2) Proximodistal Principle Developing from the center to the limbs 3) Differentiation Principle When skills become more distinct as infants grow Ex) grasping replaced by voluntary grasping Patterns of Growth: Infants grow dramatically within just a year Weight: After 5 months, weight doubles After 1 year, weight triples After 2 years, weight quadruples Height: After 1 year, height increases 50% Girls tend to reach ½ of their adult height at 1 ½ years while boys reach ½ their adult height at 2 years It was once believed that children grow continuously (in a smooth curve) One study shows that children grow in spurts Infants didn’t grow 9095% of the time, but suddenly grew .21 inch within 24 hours Because the head is first to grow, the brain is developed first Brain Development: Brain command center of an organism; part of the nervous system Parts of the brain: Medulla Controls basic, rhythmic functions Heart beat and breathing Cerebellum Controls motor skills, balance, and eye movement coordination in response to body sensations Cerebrum Controls learning, memory, and language An infant’s brain weighs less than 1 pound at birth, and triples after 1 year (70% of an adult’s brain weight) Nervous system a system of nerves that control various bodily functions Synaptic development the process of forming neural connections Infants have more neural connections than adults but lose them due to lack of stimulation Neuron basic cell of the nervous system that receives and sends messages/neurotransmitters Composed of: Cell body Dendrites (receivers) Axons (senders) Neurons die if they are not stimulated Myelin Sheaths fatty substances encasing an axon Speeds up neural impulses Lessens chance for electric current leakage Well myelinated neurons at birth: Heartbeat and respiration Sleeping and arousal Reflexes in response to stimuli Myelination the process of coating axons with myelin; occurs until approximately 20 years of age Allows for intentional physical activity and more purposeful/distinct motor actions Myelination of hearing occurs around 6 months and continues until the child reaches 4 years old Myelination of vision starts late in pregnancy but develops rapidly until a child reaches about 1 year old Affected by: Malnutrition (nature) Lack of sensory activity, motor activity, or synaptic pruning (maintaining neural connections by continuously using those parts of the brain) Central Nervous System nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord After brain, what develops? Motor Development: Development in the muscles, posture changes, movement, and coordination are all categories of motor development; maturation, myelination, and differentiation are required to develop certain voluntary motor skills Muscle strength, bone density, balance, and coordination increase as an infant develops Children develop from needing support to move to unaided movement Development follows the cephalocaudal and proximodistal development (head to tail and center to limbs) Every infant progresses through the same developmental stages but there are some variations (INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES), which occur when a child may take longer or shorter in a stage to achieve a milestone or even skips a stage to achieve a milestone Ex) African Americans tend to develop faster than European Americans, Hopi infants spend their first year strapped to a cradle board and still walk early in their 2 year Variation has no impact on later development Reaction range limits for the expression of genetic traits Nature puts limits on range of a trait (blue eye trait) Nurture determines if child reaches the limits of the range (how blue the infants eyes will be) Types of motor skills: Gross motor skills Walking, crawling, sitting up Fine motor skills Gripping, holding a cup Lifting/Holding the Torso/ Head: neonates children in the first 4 weeks after birth newborns move their head from side to side 1 month: lifts head 2 months: lifts chest Caregivers must support the infants head until they can do it alone There are individual differences between the time it takes for infants to develop this independent ability, but it’s approximately 36 months Controlling Hands: Infants track objects but do not reach for them Anticipation and grasping at moving objects doesn’t develop until 511 months Grasp reflex: cannot voluntarily grasp When infants do grasp, they don’t intentionally release objects until 46 months of age Voluntary grasping: Develops around 34 months of age Involves visual and motor coordination Transferring objects from hand to hand develops in 46 months of age Ulnar grasp using the fingers and palm to grasp both large and small objects Pincer grasp using the index and thumb to grasp small objects; develops in 912 months Stacking blocks (reliably): 15 months: 2 blocks 18 months: 3 blocks 2 years: 5 blocks Locomotion: Moving from place to place 6 months: rolling over 7 months: sitting 10 months: crawling (using just hands) or creeping (using hands and knees) 1215 months: walking 2 years: climbing stairs Sensory Development: 1) Sensation Stimulation of sensory organs and transmission of sensory information 2) Perception interpretation of stimulation We use the process of integrating disjointed sensations into meaningful patterns through perception Newborns begin as passive reactors and grow into active participants as their perception develops Research focuses on the perception of vision and hearing 1) Visual perception Least mature Born near sighted with peripheral vision of 30 Birth6 months: greatest gains in acuity of vision 35 years: child reaches approximate adult level 7 weeks: peripheral vision of 45 6 months: peripheral vision of 90 like an adult Babies attend longer to stripes/blobs, faces/patterns 812 weeks: prefer curved lines over straight lines Prefer maternal and symmetrical faces Infants are more attentive to the outer edges of the face at 1 month and move toward the center at 2 months Visual cliff: Experiment by Gibson and Walk to test whether children need crawling experience to develop a fear of heights and falling by dividing a table into “deep” and “shallow” sides (1960) 8/10 children refused to cross the “deep end” Approximately 1 month: no change in HR Approximately 2 months: decrease in HR Approximately 9 months: increase in HR 2) Auditory Perception Developed prenatally Neonates orient toward the origins of sound 1 month: able to differentiate between speech sounds 35 months: discriminate between caregiver’s voice and other voices 6 months: able to screen out meaningless sounds 1012 months: infants lose the capacity to discriminate nonnative speech sounds 18 months: able to locate the origin of sounds like an adult 1 year: infants are able to understand more than they can actually say Perceptual Constancies: Process of integrating disjointed sensations into meaningful patterns Usually in vision and hearing Types: 1) Perceptual constancy Perception of objects remain the same Sensations differ under certain conditions, such as distance or angles 2) Size constancy The size of an object remains the same even though retinal sizes vary 3) Shape constancy The shape of an object will remain the same even if it’s viewed at different angles Coordination: Objects experience with one sense are the same as those experienced with another sense Children look longer at new items rather than items they’ve already handled Health and Nutrition: Primary source of nutrients comes from breast milk At 46 months, an infant starts eating solid foods, but does not solely rely on solids as their food source Malnutrition not receiving proper amounts or balances of nutrients Types of malnutrition: 1) Fail to Thrive When an infant stops growing within the normal limit Due to organic (underlying health issues) or nonorganic (psychological or social causes) causes NOT DUE TO A LACK OF FOOD This causes: physical, cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems 2) Marasmus Wasting away due to lack of nutrients Due to low breast milk or inadequate bottle feeding Children can revert back to normal growth Canalization tendency for an infant to return to normal growth patterns Unfortunately, 44% of infants live below the national poverty level, and 300 die per day due to malnutrition. So, to give an infant the most nutrients, what method of feeding is best? Breastfeeding vs. Bottle feeding 1) Breast feeding 70% of women breastfeed for at least some period of time 20% continue to breastfeed until her child reaches 1 year old Breast milk is high in nutrient content to volume ratio Milk is sufficient nutrients until the baby reaches 6 months old Babies prefer breast milk over bottle formula Benefits for baby: Child receives its mother’s antibodies to fight germs Protects from lymphoma Lower allergy rate Lower obesity rate Higher neural organization Milk is nutritionally dense Milk meets the specific nutritional needs of humans Benefits for mother: Lowers the risk to breast or ovarian cancer Increases bone strength Responds more calmly to stress Nature vs. Nurture: 1) Nature Infants are born with innate skills Sensory changes are linked to the maturation of nerves 2) Nurture Experience is needed to stimulate development, and interaction shapes development
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