CAS 301 Week 2 Notes
CAS 301 Week 2 Notes CAS 301
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Inquiry & Methodology in Child Development
Popular in Child and Adolescent Studies
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caru on Tuesday September 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CAS 301 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Sarana Roberts in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Inquiry & Methodology in Child Development in Child and Adolescent Studies at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 09/27/16
CAS 301 - Week 2 Chapter 2: Where to Start ● The motivation to conduct scientific research derives from a natural curiosity about the world ● Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Predictions ○ Research questions ~ used to identify and describe the broad topic they are investigating ■ research is conducted to answer the question ■ A good research question identifies the topic of inquiry specifically enough so that hypotheses and predictions can be made ■ hypothesis is also a question -> makes a statement about something that may be true ● more specific versions of research questions -> directly testable whereas a research question may not be ● Hypothesis ~ the tentative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it ● Propose hypothesis -> gather and evaluate data in terms of whether the evidence is consistent or inconsistent with the hypothesis ● Prediction ~ a guess at the outcome of a hypothesis ○ prediction confirmed = hypothesis is supported, but not proven ○ Prediction is not confirmed = researchers reject the hypothesis or conduct further research using different methods ● continually studying a hypothesis, and finding the same results, using a variety of methods leads to more confidence in the correctness of the hypothesis ○ Who We Study: A Note on Terminology ■ Participants = subjects = the individuals who participate in research projects ■ Respondents ~ The individual who take part in the survey research ■ Informants ~ people who help researchers understand the Dynamics of particular cultural and organizational settings ○ Sources of Ideas ■ Five sources of ideas: common sense observation of the world around us, theories, past research, and practical problems ■ Common Sense ● Common sense ~ the things we believe to be true ○ Ex. opposites attract; birds of a feather flock together ● Valuable - can show that the real world is much more complicated than our commonsense ideas would have it ○ Ex. Pictures can aid memory under certain circumstances, but sometimes pictures detract from learning ● conducting research to test common sense ideas often forces us to go beyond a common sense theory of behavior ■ Observation of the World Around Us ● Winograd and Soloway (1986) ○ Studied whether it is a good idea to put things in special places ○ found that people are likely to forget where something is placed when two conditions are present: ■ the location where the object is placed is judged to be highly memorable ■ the location is considered a very unlikely place for the object ○ thus, it may seem like a good idea at the time, but storing something in an unusual place is generally not a good idea ● taking a scientific approach to a problem can lead to new discoveries and important applications ● Serendipity - the occurrence of something by sheer luck ■ Theories ● Theory ~ consist of a systematic body of ideas about a particular topic or phenomenon ○ form a coherent and logically consistent structure that serves two important functions ■ organize and explain a variety of specific facts or descriptions of behavior ■ generate knowledge by focusing our thinking so that we notice new aspects of behavior ○ Generates hypotheses about behavior ○ a scientific theory is grounded with actual data from prior research as well as numerous hypotheses that are consistent with the theory ■ the hypothesis can be tested through further research = falsifiable( data can support or refute hypothesis) ● modified as new research defines the scope of the theory ■ Past Research ● researchers can use the body of past literature on a topic to continually define and expand our knowledge ● becoming familiar with a body of research on the topic is perhaps the best way to generate ideas for new research ● almost every study raises questions that can be addressed in subsequent research ● the research may lead to an attempt to apply the findings in a different setting, study the topic with a different age group, or to use a different methodology to replicate the results ● Look for inconsistencies in research results that need to be investigated or study alternative explanations for the results ■ Practical Problems ● Research is often stimulated by practical problems that can have immediate applications ○ Ex. survey bicycle riders to determine the most desirable route for a city bike path
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