PSYC 1101 Week 6
PSYC 1101 Week 6 PSYC 1101
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Pearce on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Trina Cyterski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
PSYC 1101 Week 6 - All of Chp. 6, beginning of Chp. 7 17 September 2016 Chapter 6: Memory ● Memory: an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters that information as it is stored away, and then retrieves inf●rThree processes of memory ○ Encoding: set of mental operations performed on sensory information to convert it to a form usable for storage in the brain ○ Retrieval: getting information from storage and converting it into a usable form ○ Memory = Putting it in, keeping it in, and getting it out 1 ● Models of memory ○ Information processing model: assumes that the processing of information for memory is similar to the way a computer processes memory - in 3 stages ○ Parallel distributed processing model: memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections 19 September 2016 ● Sensory memory: the very first stage of memory; the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems Short-term memory (STM; working memory): the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used ● Selective attention: the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input ● Iconic memory: visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second ○ Capacity - everything that can be seen at one time ○ Duration - information that has just entered the iconic memory will be pushed out very quickly by new information, a process called masking ● Eidetic imagery: the rare ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more ● Echoic memory: the brief memory of something a person has just heard ○ Capacity - limited to what can be heard at any one moment; smaller than the capacity of iconic memory ○ Duration - lasts longer than iconic; about 2-4 seconds ● Chunking: bits of information are combined into meaningful units, or chunks, so that more information can be held in the short-term memory ○ Probably the most common example of chunking occurs in phone numbers. For example, a phone number sequence of 4-7-1-1- 3-2-4 would be chunked into 471-1324. Chunking is often a useful tool when memorizing large amounts of information. By separating disparate individual elements into larger blocks, information becomes 2 easier to retain and recall. (https://www.verywell.com/chunking-how- can-this-technique-improve-your-memory-2794969) ● Rehearsal: repeating bits of information to be remembered over and over in order to maintain it within short-term memory; this is helpful because short term memories tend to be encoded in auditory form Long term memory (LTM): the memory system into which all the information is place to be kept more or less permanently ● Elaborative rehearsal: a method of transferring information from short-term memory into long-term memory by making that information meaningful in some way ● Non-declarative (implicit/procedural) memory: type of long term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses ○ These memories are not conscious but their existence is implied because they affect conscious behavior ○ This also includes emotional associations, habits, and simple conditioned reflexes that may or may not be in conscious awareness ● Declarative (explicit) memory: type of long term memory containing information that is conscious and known; memory for facts ○ Semantic memory: declarative memory containing general knowledge; knowledge of language, information learned in formal education ○ Episodic memory: declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others; daily activities and events ● Long-term memory is organized in terms of related meanings and concepts ● Semantic Network model: assumes that information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion; Concepts that are related are stored physically closer to each other than unrelated concepts 3 21 September 2016 Cues to help remember ● Retrieval cue: stimulus for memory ● Encoding specificity: tendency for recall of information to be improved if related conditions (i.e. surroundings or physiological state) are similar to those conditions when the memory was first being formed ○ State dependent learning: memories form during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to the call while in a similar state ● Serial position effect: information at the beginning and end of a body of information or more accurately remembered than the information in the middle ○ “I cnduo't bvleiee taht I culod aulaclty uesdtannrd waht I was rdnaieg. Unisg the icndeblire pweor of the hmuan mnid, aocdcrnig to rseecrah at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno't mttaer in waht oderr the lterets in a wrod are, the olny irpoamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rhgit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whoutit a pboerlm. Tihs is bucseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey ltteer by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.” (http://www.ecenglish.com/learnenglish/lessons/can-you-read) ● Primacy effect: tendency to remember information at the beginning of a body of information better than what follows ● Recency effect: tendency to remember information at the end of a body of information better than the information ahead of it ● Recognition: ability to match a piece of information or stimulus to a stored image or fact ● False positive: error of recognition in which people think that they recognize a stimulus that is not actually in memory ○ Case of Father Bernard Pagano 4 ■ falsely identified as the perpetrator of a crime by 7 witnesses; another man later confessed to the crimes ● Elizabeth Loftus ○ show that what people see in here after an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event ○ demonstrated that I wouldn't his testimony is not always reliable ● Automatic encoding: tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long term memory with little or no effortful encoding ● Flashbulb memories: automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it How LTMs are formed ● Constructive processing: memory retrieval process in which memories are built or reconstructed from information stored during encoding ○ with each retrieval, memories may be altered, revised, or influenced by newer information ● Hindsight bias: the tendency to falsely believe, through revision of older memories to include your information, that one could have correctly predicted the outcome of an event Memory retrieval problems ● Misinformation effect: tendency of misleading information presented after an event to alter the memories of the event itself ○ In a famous experiment by psychologist Elizabeth Loftus, participants were shown video footage of a traffic accident. After watching the clip, the participants were then asked a number of questions about what they had observed, much in the same way police officers, accident investigators, and attorneys might question an eyewitness. One of the questions asked was "How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?" In some instances, however, a subtle change was made; participants were instead asked how fast the cars 5 were going when they "smashed into" each other. What the researchers discovered was that simply using the word "smashed" instead of "hit" could change how the participants remembered the accident. A week later, the participants were once again asked a series of questions, including "Did you see broken glass?" Most of the participants correctly answered no, but those who had been asked the "smashed into" version of the question in the initial interview were more likely to incorrectly believe that they had indeed seen broken glass. ● False memory syndrome: creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis ○ Evidence suggests that false memories cannot be created for just any kind of memory; they must at least be plausible Forgetting ● Ebbinghaus - Curve of Forgetting: a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually ● Distributed Practice: spacing one’s study sessions ● Massed Practice: studying a complete body of information all at once ● Encoding failure: failure to process information into memory ● Memory Trace Theory ○ Memory Trace: physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed ○ Decay: loss of memory due to passage of time, during which memory trace is not used ○ Disuse: another name for decay, assuming that memories that are not used and will eventually Decay and disappear ○ Memories recalled after many years are not explained by the Memory Trace Theory 6 ● Interference Theory ○ Proactive interference: memory retrieval problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer information ○ Retroactive interference: memory retrieval problem that occurs when new information presents or interferes with the retrieval of older information Formation of long-term memories ● Consolidation: changes that take place in the structure and functioning of neurons when a memory is formed ● Long-term potentiation: changes in number and sensitivity of receptor sites or synapses through repeated stimulation Structures involved in Memory Formation ● Cerebral Cortex: 4mm thin outer layer of the forebrain. Responsible for intellectual functioning & voluntary movements (Includes primary & association areas) ● Frontal Lobes: Largest lobe of the brain responsible for movement, language, planning & problem solving, personality and emotion. ● Hippocampus: Curved structure lying in the medial temporal lobe. Responsible for consolidation of explicit (declarative memories) & transfers these to other parts of the brain for storage as LTM ● Amygdala: Almond-shaped structure located in medial temporal lobe of the brain. Responsible for emotional and implicit learning (forms emotional memories) ● Basal Ganglia: Smoothing & integrating motor activity using information from primary, secondary motor areas & Somatosensory cortex ● Cerebellum: Located in hindbrain. Primitive part of the brain controlling automatic functions (e.g. heart-beat, balance & posture). 7 8 ● Amnesia ○ Retrograde amnesia: loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past ○ Anterograde Amnesia: loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories ■ senile dementia ■ the case of H.M. ○ Infantile Amnesia: the inability to retrieve memories from lunch before the age of 3 ○ Autobiographical memory: the memory for events and facts related to one's personal life story (usually begins after age 3) ● Alzheimer's ○ 5.3 million cases in the US ○ primary memory difficulty and Alzheimer's is anterograde amnesia ○ retrograde amnesia can also occur as the disease progresses onwards ○ There are various drugs in use or in development for slowing or stopping the progression of Alzheimer's disease, but there is no cure ○ Risk factors ■ high cholesterol/ blood pressure ■ smoking ■ obesity /lack of exercise ■ Type II diabetes Health and memory ● Sleep is important in forming memories ○ Memories rehearsed during sleep as well as during waking are more likely to be consolidated ○ One can't learn something new while sleeping, but new information can be better consolidated while sleeping ○ Sleep deprivation severely interferes with hippocampus function and memory ● Brief exercise has shown to provide benefits to memory CHAPTER 7 9 Cognition ● Thinking ( cognition): mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is attempting to understand information ● Kosslyn’s fictional island ○ We think in images, or mental imagery ○ Mental imagery: mental representations that stand for objects or events with a picture like quality ● Concepts ○ Formal Concepts: concepts with set rules or definitions ○ Natural Concepts: formed as a result of experience; no definition ○ Prototype: example that most closely resembles the concept ● Problem solving: process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways ● Decision-making: process of cognition that involves identifying, evaluating, and choosing among several alternatives 10
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