HPRB 1710 Week 6
HPRB 1710 Week 6 HPRB 1710
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Pearce on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HPRB 1710 at University of Georgia taught by Lindsay White in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Health and Wellness in Public Health at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
HPRB 1710 FALL SEMESTER 2016 Only 1 lecture this week 18 September 2016 ● Blue Z○ Blue Zones is a concept used to identify a demographic and/or geographic area of the world where people live measurably longer lives ○ Communities move naturally (walking, hiking, etc.), no real intentional exercise ○ Have an optimistic outlook on life; taking time in the day to decompress 1 Physical Activity ● Physical Activity: Any activity that forces the body into moving ● Exercise: Intentional bouts of repetitive, planned moderate- intense physical activity ● Physical Fitness/Function: One’s ability to engage in physical activity or exercise Types of physical function Skill Related Health Related Ability to play a game or sport Contributes to Good Health ● Agility ● Body composition ● Balance ● Cardiovascular fitness ● Coordination ● Muscular Endurance ● Speed ● Muscular strength ● Reflexes ● Flexibility Body Composition ● Weight means NOTHING ● Body composition: Ratio of adipose (fat) to lean (muscular) tissue ● BMI (Body Mass Index): ratio of weight to height; recently determined to be somewhat inaccurate ● Good health is generally indicated by a high lean body mass and an adipose mass within 14%-24% for males and 21%-31% for females ● Testing Body Composition ○ DXA Scan (highly accurate) ○ Bioelectrical Impedance (affected by hydration) ○ Skinfolds (must be done by a trained professional) ○ Hydrostatic Weighing ○ Bod-Pod 2 Cardiorespiratory Fitness ● Ability of the heart and lungs to work efficiently during sustained bouts of exercise ○ Aerobic Exercise: physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy- generating process. Increases heart rate and breathing for a sustained period of time. ○ Anaerobic exercise: physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form. It is used by athletes in non- endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass. Short, powerful bursts; generally lasts less than 3 minutes. ● Exercise Recommendations ○ 150 mins/week of moderate intensity exercise ○ 60-85 mins/week of vigorous intensity exercise Resistance Training ● Muscular Strength: the ability of a muscle group to develop maximal contractile force against a resistance in a single contraction. Muscular endurance is the ability of a muscle group to exert submaximal force for extended periods. ● Muscular Endurance: the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions against a resistance for an extended period of time. Muscular endurance is one of the components of muscular fitness, along with muscular strength and power. ● Resistance training: any exercise that causes the muscles to contract against an external resistance with the expectation of increases in strength, tone, mass, and/or endurance ● Functional training: classification of exercise which involves training the body for the activities performed in daily life. This is the most useful form of training. ● Hypertrophy: the enlargement of an organ or tissue from the increase in size of its cells. 3 ● Forms of Resistance Training: ○ Free weights ○ Elastic bands ○ Weight machines ■ Pro - aids in proper form ■ Con - not functional movement, stresses joints ○ Other Items ■ Tires ■ Ropes ■ TRX ■ Hanging Bars Flexibility ● Flexibility: ability of a joint to move through it’s full range of motion ● Stretching exercises help to maintain and improve flexibility ○ Static stretching: Slowly moving to point of muscular resistance ○ Dynamic stretching: Involves moving a joint through it’s full range of motion Basic Training Principles ● Overload: stressing a body system such that it adapts to a new, higher level of strength or fitness ○ Progressive overload: gradual increases over time in the intensity, frequency, or duration of an exercise ○ FITT = frequency, intensity, time, and type ● Reversibility: fitness gained through physical activity is lost with disuse ● Specificity: body only responds to the particular demands placed upon it (doing bicep curls will not give you abs) Sedentary Lifestyles 4 ● Osteoporosis: a medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue, typically as a result of hormonal changes, lack of use, or deficiency of calcium or vitamin D. ● Osteopenia: reduced bone mass of lesser severity than osteoporosis. ● Sarcopenia: loss of muscle tissue as a natural part of the aging process. ● Muscle atrophy: decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized. ● Increased risk of Chronic Disease ○ Cardiovascular (Heart) Disease ○ Heart attack ○ Type II Diabetes ○ Stroke ○ Depression ○ Premature Death Benefits of Physical Activity ● Elevates Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) ○ BMR: the rate at which your body uses energy when you are resting in order to keep vital functions going such as breathing. The rate at which your body uses energy to breath and stay warm is an example of your basal metabolic rate. ● Aids in alleviation of chronic disease symptoms ● Conditions the cardiovascular system ● Better sleep, mood, and overall well-being ● Improved social and reproductive health ● Reduces risk of Alzheimer’s, dementia, and insulin resistance (diabetes) Excessive Exercise ● Prolonged, intense exercise can be a negative physical stressor 5 ● Female Athlete Triad: syndrome in which eating disorders (or low energy availability), amenorrhoea/oligomenorrhoea, and decreased bone mineral density (osteoporosis and osteopenia) are present. ● Compulsive Exercise: obsessive preoccupation with fitness, building muscle mass, or losing weight ○ Often accompanied by body image disturbances such as bigorexia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and orthorexia Creating an Exercise Plan ● Identify enjoyable physical activities and set reasonable goals ● List behavioral changes required to achieve those goals ● Identify barriers to exercise and track progress ● Get expert advice and find a workout partner ● Carry water and nutritious snacks Recovery from Exercise ● Recovery Period: time required for the body to adapt to the demands of exercise ○ Muscular tissue will experience hypertrophy during this period ● To ensure proper recovery ○ Stay hydrated ○ Snack before exercise (if hungry) ○ Carb/electrolyte replenishment needed only if activity lasts LONGER THAN 60 MINUTES ○ Gentle stretching after exercise ○ Active recovery exercises - perform a very low intensity “cool-down” Sports Supplements ● Not well regulated, limited unbiased research ● Not much evidence ● Evidence for creatine and various protein powders (fun fact: whey protein is actually just industrial waste from the cheese-making 6 industry and sold off for more profit, see article: http://nutritionstudies.org/no-whey-man-ill-pass-on-protein-powder/ ) ● Taking stimulants such as caffeine increase your heart rate in addition to exercise and put you at risk for: ○ Heart attack ○ Stroke ○ Seizures ○ Death Common Sports Injuries ● Sprains: painful stretching or tearing of ligaments ● Strains: injury to muscles or tendons responsible for connecting muscle to bone ● Concussions: mild traumatic brain injury caused by blunt-force impact to the head 7
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