Theories of Personality Lecture 8
Theories of Personality Lecture 8 PSYC 3570
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3570 at Auburn University taught by Elissa Hack in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter 8 Lecture Notes The Trait Approach: Relevant Research Chapter Outline Achievement motivation Type A, hostility and health Social anxiety Emotions Optimism and pessimism Need For Achievement Desire to o Accomplish something difficult o Master, manipulate or organize o Overcome obstacles and attain a high standard Assessed using Thematic Apperception Test o Used in a large number of investigations Not used as often anymore except on kids. Transferred over to self report o Time consuming o Subjected to questions about interpretation of scores Types of Achievement Motivation • Implicit • Accounts for spontaneous actions • Unconscious motivation to achieve • Tested by TAT (Thematic Apperception Test) • Explicit • Comes into play when people have time to consider achievement options and decisions • Self attributed • Very detailed • Conscious/aware Characteristics of High Need Achievers • Taking moderate risks • Not going to do anything with high risk that could end in failure • Optimistic about decisions due to low/moderate risks • Tackling work with a lot of energy • Give 100% in things that can personally benefit/satisfy needs • Being disinterested in routine and boring jobs • Prefer creative jobs that are able to show off their skill set Chapter 8 Lecture Notes • Preferring jobs that give personal responsibility for outcomes • Want praise/credit when they do well but are not afraid to take credit if it/they fail • Wanting concrete feedback about the performance • Want to know how they’re doing in comparison to others. • How they define their achievement is based of how they do compared to others Factors Predicting Achievement Behavior Parenting practices associated with high need for achievement in children o Fine line between child independence & neglect. o Involved enough for them to achieve but not hovering/smothering them People with a high need for achievement tend to find economic prosperity than others o Naturally drawn to high position jobs High level of achievement motivation interferes with effective performance o Too high can lead to issues with control and unable to work with others Gender, Culture, and Achievement High need for achievement predicts success in the business world for both genders o Have similar levels of High Need Achievement Men and women think about achievement in different ways o Men see success in terms of external standards Example Getting a raise or being promoted o Women tend to rely on internal definitions of success Example instead of manipulating to get to the top/ahead of others they’re more concerned with how satisfied their customers are Achievement Behavior in Different Cultures Individualistic culture o In terms of personal accomplishments o Workers see themselves in competition with their coworkers which motivates them to work harder Collectivist culture o In terms of cooperation and group accomplishments o Professionals are concerned about the emotional and financial well-being of their coworkers Chapter 8 Lecture Notes Need to take these into consideration when coming up with tests/how we word questions o Western studies will be very concentrated on the individual Example “questions” It is very important to get a promotion It is important that my boss recognizes when I do well o One test will NOT transition well to the other. If you put the above “questions” on a test in an eastern study it will look as if none of them have high need for achievement Attributions Determines how people feel about the performance and how people perform in similar situations in the future Researchers find that people attribute losses to unstable sources which keeps hope of winning alive Way to improve achievement motivation o Change people’s attributions Examples: o Getting a good grade Attribute I studied really hard o Getting a bad grade Attribute teacher didn’t go into enough detail during lecture Table 8.1 - Three Dimensions for Attributions Stability o Explaining performance according to stabled dimensions such as intelligence o Stable I’m intelligent that’s why I did well o Unstable I’m a good guesser. I was lucky o Effects future behaviors Chapter 8 Lecture Notes If we studied hard for this test and we use our intelligence as an internal attribute then we’ll study the same way next time. If something was unstable then maybe we’ll study harder so we don’t have to be “lucky” Locus o Internal I’m just really intelligent. Anything on the inside that you describe as a characteristic Beneficial to our well being/self esteem o External The test was too hard Anything on the outside Control o Controllable How hard we studied. We can control how much/hard we studied o Uncontrollable What the test contained. Its outside of our control Achievement Goals Provide targets that people aspire to in achievement situations Categories o Mastery Really understanding the material Internal o Performance Showing confidence to yourself and others external Dividing mastery and performance into approach and avoidance categories o Mastery Approach really want to know the information Avoidance I don’t want to look incompetent o Performance Approach I want to get an A Avoid I don’t want to get an F Figure 8.2 - Achievement Goal Framework Chapter 8 Lecture Notes Effects of Mastery and Performance Goals Mastery o Students choose more challenging tasks are more interested in their classes o People retain information and skills learned longer o People share information and work with others to achieve common goals Performance o Affects how well individuals work in groups o People tend to see others as competition o Advantages are limited Type A as a Personality Variable Components that make up the Type A trait o Have a higher competitive achievement striving o Respond to frustrating situations with anger o Work harder o Time is important & shouldn’t be wasted o Want what they cant have o Out perform type B But may be because they set higher goals for themselves Behavior of Type A’s in terms of a motivation for control o Desire to exercise effective control over the people and situations they encounter Less likely to give up control in tasks Tend to dominate a group discussion Hostility and Health Hostility component - Findings explaining relationships between Type A behavior and coronary disease o All the built up tension is bad for health and triggers the health issues Type A need not be bad for health Chapter 8 Lecture Notes o By avoiding minor setbacks and frustrations it is possible to be productive and healthy Table 8.2 - Some Health Consequences of High Anger and Hostility Social Anxiety Related to social interactions o Unlike generalized anxiety we know what is triggering the anxiety Leads to: o Increased physiological arousal o Inability to concentrate o Feelings of nervousness Same as or related to many other constructs investigated by psychologists o Correlation between shy and social anxiety (book actually uses them interchangeably) o DON’T MISTAKE INTROVERTS AS SOMEONE WITH SOCIAL ANXIETY Introverts seek out solitude, enjoy being alone, allows them to recharge, not avoiding social interactions due to nervousness Anxiety Don’t like being alone they crave being around people and being social they’re just limited due to their fear of judgment/bad interactions Characteristics of Socially Anxious People Feeling awkward and nervous when interacting with others o Interpret most interactions very negatively Being concerned of other’s perception about them Chapter 8 Lecture Notes o See people’s faces as disapproval Stumbling over words and saying the wrong thing Feeling ashamed and embarrassed in social situations o Self fulfilling prophecy. They expect the interactions to go poorly so they do all the things they can to avoid that and end up doing things that made the interaction awkward rather than just going with the flow. Letting things naturally play out on their own Explaining Social Anxiety Evaluation apprehension o Underlying cause of social anxiety o Situations that lend themselves to evaluation by others are particularly anxiety provoking o Fear of being judged or having a negative evaluation Socially anxious people deal with the fear of negative evaluation avoid social encounters o Avoiding eye contact, avoiding long conversations, etc Emotions Researchers identified ways of examining emotions as relatively stable personal characteristics by the difference in the: o Affectivity - Extent to which people experience positive and negative emotions Can be judged by self report o Intensity - Strength of the emotions people experience Can be judged by self report o Expressiveness - Way people outwardly express their emotions Studied thru behavior Relatively stable over time, more of a disposition than a trait Dimensions of Emotional Affectivity Positive - Each extreme respectively include emotions as: o Active, content, and satisfied o Sad and lethargic Negative - Emotions at the opposite extremes o Nervousness, anger, and distress o Calm and serene ** both scales have a high and a low but what is a low on one scale doesn’t mean it’s a high on the other scale Emotional Affectivity Individual differences referred by psychologists Chapter 8 Lecture Notes o Knowing where to place a person on the two affect dimensions o Predicting with reasonable accuracy a person’s general tendency to experience positive and negative affect years from now Emotional Affectivity Individual differences in positive and negative affect predict a number of behaviors o Behavior consistently associated with high positive affect is social activity Not as many health issues o People high in positive affect: Act in ways that most people find attractive Tend to be happy, enthusiastic, and attentive More friends less health issues Emotional Affectivity High scores on negative affect: o Relates to psychological stress o Causes a diverse list of emotional problems o People report more health problems and complain more than the symptoms warranted o Results in difficulty dealing with stress Affect Intensity Strength or degree to which people experience their emotions High intensity people experience their emotions more intensely, but also tend to be more variable o More aware, would want to relive Difference between high- and low-intensity people is how they react to the events o Internal Difference in the way of experiencing happiness o High-intensity people - Happiness means a lot of exhilarating and enlivening experiences o Low-intensity people - Happiness takes the form of a calm and enduring sense of contentment Emotional Expressiveness Person’s outward display of emotions o Behavioral measurement Women tend to be more expressive and better at reading the emotions in other people’s faces Chapter 8 Lecture Notes Getting along with others depends on peoples expressiveness Good for our psychological health Optimism Dispositional optimism: Extent to which people adopt to positive viewpoints Optimists: o Effectively prioritize and set higher goals o Believe they can reach the goals o Never allow setbacks and temporary failures to get them down Connected to coping, well-being, and health Relatively stable on a continuum Dealing with Adversity Dispositional optimists living in stressful region experienced less anxiety and depression than pessimists Optimists deal with adverse situations better than pessimist Optimists and pessimists use different strategies to cope with their problems Figure 8.5 - Use of Coping Strategies Optimism and Health Chapter 8 Lecture Notes Optimists are in better physical health than pessimists as they: o Find social support which results in better health o Consist the outlook which leads to attitudes and behaviors that contribute to good health