Week 7 Notes
Week 7 Notes ADPR3850
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kacie Notetaker on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ADPR3850 at University of Georgia taught by Cacciatore in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Relations in Public Relations at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
ADPR 3850: Research Week 7 Research and Data on the biggest stage o You might choose best option and fail or choose worst option and succeed—but they help you make an informed decision o And they help us make complex decisions 4 Essential Steps of Effective PR Research Planning Communication Measurement/Evaluation Research is Systematic investigation of a problem Involving gathering evidence From samples to make inferences Systematic investigation Predefined procedures and methods o Survey questionnaire o Guidelines for focus groups o Codebook for content analysis Intersubjectivity o It must be possible for other researchers to replicate the study and get same results Research Problems- should be empirical i.e. answered based on observational evidence 3 Key types of problems Exploratory- new – focus groups to understand voters reaction to new policies Descriptive- audience research, research of market shares Causal- something influences this, examining the influence of one variable on another Exploratory: pretesting product names Pretesting brand and product names in different cultures Up to 10,000 variations tested Focus group and survey testing for o Cognitive associations o Pronunciation o Different meanings Causal Involving gathering evidence o Search for social regularities Predictions about specific publics, larger groups of voters, or consumers Not: predictions about individuals- o Always with some chance of error Findings hold within some margin of error, there’s never absolute certainty Important distinction: probabilistic vs. deterministic predictions Based on samples in order to make influences Most (market) research is still based on samples. The goal is to make inferences to o A larger population o Other time periods o Other location/societies Sampling: Probability vs. Nonprobability sampling Probability Sampling: each element of the population has a o Non zero, Known, Equal chance of being selected o these are the ones to trust Primary Nonprobability sampling one of the assumptions of probability sampling is violated In order to calculate sampling error, use probability sampling techniques Reasons to conduct Research Data is incredibly valuable for looking forward o Guesses vs. systematic conclusions when making predictions They help us look back and evaluate o Professors o Campaigns o Football-decision making Reasons to understand research Obsession with data and analysis is everywhere We see it in o Politics, sports, TV, Actor movie choices Academic “Basic” Research: Funded through universities or foundations Done to answer broader theoretical questions Conducted by academics Applied “Industry” Research Funded by corporate/political sponsors Done to answer a specific, applied question Conducted by: o Academics o Research departments of larger firms o Market research or consulting companies Primary vs. Secondary Research Primary Info gathered by the researchers through person to person interaction. Can be gathered through meetings, interviews, focus groups, surveys Secondary Info gathered through available literature, publications, broadcast media, and other non human sources Generally easier to gather than primary Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research quantitative Methods o numerical and statistical comparisons made possible by systematic survey/polls, experiments o data used to test hypothesis and identify the strength of patterns observed Qualitative Methods o Descriptions of cultural situations obtained from interviewing, focus groups, participant observation, and collection of oral and textual materials Quantitative Methods Data Collection o Controlled o Objective o Systematic observations Data Assessment o Can be reliably measured o Validity can be measured o Interpreted deductively Outcomes o Description o Understanding o Prediction Qualitative Methods Data Collection o Uncontrolled o Subjective o Random observations Data Assessment o Cannot o Validity is assumed o Interpreted inductively Outcomes o Description o Understanding Qualitative Focus Costs Interviews are expensive so researchers turn to focus groups o Consist of 5-10 people who are chosen based on their relevance o A guided discussion designed to explore a topic of special interest to the client/researcher Cross Sectional vs. Longitudinal Research Cross-sectional research research based on a sample drawn at a single point in time Longitudinal research research based on one or multiple samples, with measurements taken at multiple points in time Ways to use research: Achieve credibility with management Define/segment publics Formulate strategy Prevent crises Monitor competition Generate publicity Measure success Test messages The Practical Research Process Client Question Budget/ Schedule Conceptualization Selecting a Research Strategy/ Methodology Operationalization Population/ Sampling Questionnaire Construction