Ling 300, Introduction Notes
Ling 300, Introduction Notes LING 300 H01
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamie Milliff on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 300 H01 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Robin Morris in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see HNRS: Introduction to Language Sciences in Psychology (PSYC) at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Introduction to Linguistics Tuesday, August 23, 2016 1:20 PM What is Linguistics? • The study of language systems and how they are used. • Some sub-disciplines of Linguistics ○ Sociolinguistics & Linguistic Anthropology: the study of language and culture Language as a foundational aspect of cultures and societies, how § one uses language to wield power or identify with a group or convey social conventions, conform or violate social conventions ○ Psycholinguistics: the study of language behavior § Language behavior, how people USE language ○ Historical linguistics: the study of language change over time § How characteristics grew out of a history, retrospectively, unearthing common features across languages to find cultural relationships in the distant past, rules that seem odd in a particular language may have been adopted from another, phonetics (articulation, sound patterns, repercussions) Neurolinguistics: how language and language behavior is represented in ○ the brain § Brain specialization, specifically HOW/WHERE things are related in the brain, how systems react with other systems, neurobiological disorders, LDs ○ At USC § Linguistics program, every faculty member is a member of another discipline § Psychology, Philosophy, Languages and Cultures, English, Anthropology, etc § Undergraduate minor, BARSC Biological Specialization for Language • Big brains? ○ We have historically put a lot of emphasis on the size of the human brain as somehow indicative of complexity of human behavior ○ Brain size absolutely or proportionally? Relative Cortical Mass ○ All kinds of animals with tiny brains and exhibit highly complex behaviors § Tool use, flexible communication systems, probmsolving abilities • Configuration of Speech organs ○ Lungs, larynx, tongue, teeth, lips, soft palate, nasal passages as somehow indicative of complexity of human behavior ○ Brain size absolutely or proportionally? Relative Cortical Mass ○ All kinds of animals with tiny brains and exhibit highly complex behaviors § Tool use, flexible communication systems, probmsolving abilities • Configuration of Speech organs ○ Lungs, larynx, tongue, teeth, lips, soft palate, nasal passages ○ Intimately involved in the production of speech sounds § Not it's only job ○ Allows us to make the sounds that we do § Catalogue of speech sounds, rr, guttural sounds, clicks § Demonstrate that primates could acquire language □ Nasal passages, soft palate, larynx: physiologically incapable of making the sounds of human speech § Bird sound patterns are different, but they become the same in perception □ Production in different ways (lips) • Speech recognition ○ Prenatal perceptual discrimination of speech sounds ○ Compelling evidence that the human auditory system begins to configure itself to do some pretty sophisticated discrimination of sound in the third trimester. § Pre-term human infant can determinate speech sounds § Inborn need to pay attention to language, system attends to differences in sounds □ The system doesn't need them? Why do they work? Language as a Creative System (rules are implicit) • Creative ability to adapt to social change and innovation ○ Coin new words, label new objects and activities § Common usage § ASAP, NOGI, SNAFU, FUBAR, LOL, AWOL □ Is this something that fits within the bounds of the language or not? ○ Generate unique utterances (phrases/sentences/stories) § Say things that no one has ever said to me in that same order § Make up my own sentences • Bounded by constraints/rules: why? ○ I can understand you, you understand me ○ It's a system § Linguists look at these constraints and rules, without them we can't coin new • Using nouns as verbs ○ Nouns that express objects of action § Knife - knifed; staple - stapled ○ Nouns that express periods of time vs points in time § Linguists look at these constraints and rules, without them we can't coin new • Using nouns as verbs ○ Nouns that express objects of action Knife - knifed; staple - stapled § ○ Nouns that express periods of time vs points in time § You can vacation, but you can't midnight • New words ○ Conform to the sound patters of the language (flib but not fgib) § The word would be rejected because it doesn't follow the rules ○ Add new endings (acct > actor, rapt > raptor?) (brew > brewer; corn > corner) ○ Components and parts of existing words § "craptastic" ○ People use less than 20% of their working vocabulary § People who are accelerated readers early on have a couple of words that "create" because of the way they are used □ "misled" • New sentences ○ Fly frog the out the ate air of the happy ○ The happy frog ate the fly out of the air Grammar and Linguistic Competence • Competence: ability to produce and understand novel words and sentences as acceptable or not. ○ Distinguish between sentences that are within or outside the grammatical bounds • Grammar: within the constraints of the language, not necessarily socially acceptable ○ "Might could" May not be common usage, appropriate, but it doesn't mean it's un-grammatical § "I ain't doing that" § Many ways that we speak that we do not write ○ Phonetics: articulation and perception of speech sounds ○ Phonology: patterns of speech sounds ○ Morphology: word formation, how words can be made ○ Syntax: sentence formation ○ Semantics: interpretation of words and sentences All Languages have a Grammar • Parity: all grammars are equal ○ Within a grammar all utterances are categorized as conforming to or violating the grammar --not as "good and "bad" ○ Grammatical or not You have the possibility of understanding it ○ • Universality: all grammars are like in basic ways • Parity: all grammars are equal ○ Within a grammar all utterances are categorized as conforming to or violating the grammar --not as "good and "bad" ○ Grammatical or not ○ You have the possibility of understanding it • Universality: all grammars are like in basic ways ○ Commonalities across all grammars ○ All have nouns and verbs, more consonants than vowels, etc • Mutability: grammars may change over time ○ Even grammars are not set in concrete ○ Grammatical change is over slow moving time, generations to emerge § Artificially created: two disparate language groups shoved together and isolated § Children create the new system • Inaccessibility: grammatical knowledge is implicit "These are the nouns, these are the verbs", syntactic rules, phonetic rules, ○ practice new sounds, virtual idiots about laying out the grammar of our language ○ Corrective language at home vs not § No difference in the end § Passive exposure, systematic stages,
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