Chapter 2 Notes
Chapter 2 Notes HUMN
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaci Gilmer on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HUMN at Chattahoochee Technical College taught by Allison Budaj in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Humanities in Humanities at Chattahoochee Technical College.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter 2 Notes The Greek World Athens was the center polis of the Greek world in the fourth and fifth centuries BCE There’s about 8,000 isolated city-states that composed Greece Acropolis is the poleis of city states consisted of an urban center surrounding a natural citadel Agora is a large open space serving as a meeting place, marketplace and civic center Stoa was the principal architectural feature of the agora Aristotle was a philosopher who pursued Eudaimonia, “the good or flourishing life” The Cyclades A group of more than 100 islands in the Aegean Sea between mainland Greece and the island of Greece No written records of the early Cycladic people remain, although archeologists have found a good deal of their art in and around hillside burial chambers Trade with the larger island of Crete to the south brought the Cyclades into Crete’s political orbit by 2200 BCE Minoan Culture in Crete Flourished in Crete from 1900 to 1375 BCE The name comes from King Minos Regularly sacrificed bulls, which at least symbolically associated with male virility and strength Worshiped female deities Mycenaean Culture on the Mainland In 1450 BCE, the Minoans abandoned the place at Knossos and warriors form the mainland culture of Mycenae that quickly occupied Greece Metalwork was prized on the mainland It was a warlike culture, unlike the Minoans Repousse is a technique in which the artist hammers out the design from the inside Feudal are powerful kings that controlled the cities and surrounding countryside, and they expected loyalty and financial support from the inhabitants Discovered by German archeologist Heinrich Schliemann in the late nineteenth century The Iliad Narrates an episode in the 10-year Trojan War, which began when the Greeks launched a large fleet of ships under King Agamemnon of Mycenae The Odyssey Narrates the adventures of one of the principle Greek leaders, Odysseus, on his return home from the fighting The Classical Orders Composed of three vertical elements- the platform, the column, and the entablature- which comprise its elevation Doric is the heaviest of the columns, is sturdy and simple Ionic is lighter and more elegant in detail Corinthian is seemingly supported by mere leaves The Golden Age of Athens Kleisthenes instituted the first Athenian political democracy where he reorganized the Athenian political system into demes, which are small local areas comparable to modern precints Dates from 480 BCE to 404 BCE Pericles is the statesman the convinced the Athenians to rebuild their devastated city A culture of astonishing sophistication and diversity The Architectural Program at the Acropolis Cost was enormous Phidias was the chief sculptor; Ictinus, Callicrates, and Mnescles were the chief architects Worked on it from 440 BCE to 406 BCE The complex consisted of four main structures: the Propylaia, the Parthenon, the Temple of Athena Nike, and the Erechtheoin Used Ionic columns The Philosophical Tradition in Athens Pre-Socratics comprised the oldest school of philosophical tradition, chiefly concerned with describing the natural universe Sophists literally mean “wise men” Humanism focuses of the actions of human beings Socrates and the Sophists He understood the true meaning of the good, the true, and the just was prerequisite for acting virtuously The dialectic method was a process of inquiry characterized by question-and-answer dialogue used by Socrates Inductive Reasoning is moving from specific instances to general principles, and from particular to universal truths Aristotle: Observing the Natural World and The Golden Mean Emphasized the importance of empirical observation in understanding the world, distinguishing between a thing’s identity, its essence, and the changes that inevitably occur to it over time Catharsis is the cleansing, purification, or purgation of the soul The Golden Mean is the middle ground between any two extremes of behavior
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