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Week 6 Class Notes

by: Alexandra Notetaker

Week 6 Class Notes 3244

Alexandra Notetaker
CU Denver
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 15
Human Anatomy
Dr. Kent Nofsinger
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3244 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Dr. Kent Nofsinger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biology at University of Colorado Denver.

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Date Created: 09/28/16
Anatomy Lecture Notes 9/26 To cross the BBB without a membrane receptor, a molecule must be: *Small and non-polar Trace the course of CSF: *Ependymal cells of the choroid plexus to the ventricular system to the median and lateral apertures to arachnoid granulations in the sagittal sinus then go to the bloodstream Unipolar neurons are found: *In sensory ganglia of the spinal nerves –Yes Innervating muscles No—bipolar In the retina No Regarding neurons: 1. Prominent transaction activity shown by the presence of Nissl bodies 2. Transcription is demonstrated by the presence of prominent nucleoli VIII. Some Very Important Terms and Definitions B. Gray Matter: Cerebral cortex covers the surface of most of the adult brain—outer layer of gray matter in cerebrum and cerebellum. Cerebral nuclei—internal clusters of gray matter C. Tracts: CNS axon bundle in which the axons have a similar function and share a common origin and destination. Same thing as a nerve in the PNS. The Brain Prosencephalon = forebrain Mesencephalon = midbrain -constant all the way through development from 3 weeks embryo to adult Rhombencephalon = hindbrain II. Basic Brain Structures A. Brain Stem 1. Medulla Oblongata: derived from the myelencephalon, closely associated with 4 ventricle 2. Pons: intimately associated with cerebellum function 3. Midbrain or mesencephalon: contains the mensencephalic aqueduct and bundle of nerve fibers called cerebral peduncle B. Diencephalon: derived from the embryonic diencephalon 3. Epithalamus—includes the pineal gland which helps regulate the day/night cycle “Seahorse” in Brain Face = hypothalamus Mane = thalamus Neck = mesencephalon Pregnant Belly = pons Tail = medulla oblongata Cape = part of the mesencephalon, the copora quadrigemina which contains the superior and inferior colliculus C. Cerebral hemispheres 1. Front lobes: under the frontal bones 2. Parietal lobes: under the parietal bones Precentral gyrus: before the central sulcus which is mostly motor cortex Postcentral gyrus: mostly sensory cortex Parietal-occipital sulcus 3. Temporal lobes: under the temporal bones 4. Occipital lobes: under the occipital bones Central sulcus: separates occipital lobes which is mostly motor Lateral sulcus III. Ventricular System of the Brain A. Lateral ventricles: don’t communicate directly with each other rd but each communicate with 3 ventricle via the interventricular foramen; L and R ventricles separated by the septum pellucidum IV. Vascular Supply to the Brain A. Vessels that arise from the systemic circulation to supply the brain 1. Common carotid arteries: a. L and R common carotid arteries ___________________________________ Anatomy Lecture Notes 9/28 The telencephalon gives rise to the what adult structures: The basal nuclei The cerebral hemispheres V. The Brain Stem B. Medulla Oblongata 3. Important nuclei—nucleus gracilis (involve lower half of body) and nucleus cuneatus (involve upper half of body) -Sensory tracts synapse 12 sets of cranial nerves -most go to and from the brain from the spinal cord -nerves that head towards the face or neck don’t go through the spinal cord C. Pons -Transverse and longitudinal fibers that cross each other through this structure -“Belly” of the pregnant seahorse -Superior and inferior cerebellar peduncles -peduncles = bundles of axons on each side -Cranial nerves V-VIII (5-8) D. Midbrain or Mesencephalon -visual and auditory reflexes, many that we don’t have conscious control over -cerebral peduncles—all the ascending and descending fibers that go towards the cerebral hemispheres, gathered in the brain stem (a)The superior colliculi “visual reflex centers”; superior nuclei; become active when you turn your head and eyes in respond to a visual stimulus (b)The inferior colliculi “auditory reflex centers”; become active when you turn your head and eyes in the direction of a sound Red Nucleus—gets its color because of the iron; helps with motor coordination; helps with extraparameter movements, helps with posture Substantia nigra: contains a lot of melanin; helps with involuntary movements, produces a lot of dopamine (neurotransmitter that's deficient in those with Parkinson’s) VI. Cerebellum: helps maintain balance and equilibrium -Extraparameter movement—monitors proprioception -massive “computer” that programs body 1. Vermis: separates the L and R cerebellar hemispheres 2. Flocculonodular lobes: help with balance and eye movement control; eye-hand coordination/control 3. Cerebellar peduncles Superior cerebellar peduncle: connect the cerebellum to the midbrain Middle cerebellar peduncle: connect the pons to the cerebellum Inferior cerebellar peduncle: connect the cerebellum to the medulla oblongata VII. Cerebrum A. Cortex—think layer of gray matter on surface of hemispheres, 2- 4mm thick but covered with cell bodies where processing occurs; gyri and sulci make up the convolutions; develops rapidly during fetal development and much faster than white matter. White matter are bundles of axons B. Major fibers—consist of dendrites, myelinated axons and associated neuroglia 1. Association fibers: conduct impulses within same hemispheres a. Arcuate fibers: run from 1 gyrus to another gyrus b. Longitudinal fasciculi: run from the frontal lobe (most complex) to the other lobes 2. Commissural fibers: where the R and L hemispheres exchange info. and communicate a. Corpus callosum—largest; located more superiorly; mass of axons that link the 2 hemispheres b. Anterior commissure 3. Projection fibers: run from hemisphere to other parts of the brain and spinal cord “Split brain syndrome”: severed corpus callosum C. Basal nuclei: help coordinate movement 2. Caudate nucleus: determine pattern and rhythm of movement; eye-hand movement 3. Lentiform nucleus: lens-shaped; composed of putamen (lateral) and globus pallidus (more medial) which helps stabilize muscle tone throughout body 4. Corpus Striatum: striped-body; composed of the caudate nucleus and putamen; Severe Parkinson’s—affects facial expression; tremors at rest but as soon as a gesture is made, the basal nuclei are engaged and tremor stops Humans have great fine-motor control D. Limbic System: limbus = border; Composed of multiple cerebral and diencephalic structures that collaboratively process and experience emotions. Involved in motivation, emotion and memory w/ an emotional association. Structures of limbic system form a ring or border around the diencephalon. Functions: processes olfactory info., facilitates memory storage, establishment of emotional states and behavioral drives a. Cingulate gyrus b. Hippocampus c. Amygdaloid: related to fear, anger, happiness, sadness


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