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LING 253 Notes for Week 5

by: Kelsey Mulford

LING 253 Notes for Week 5 LING253

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Kelsey Mulford

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About this Document

These are the notes for week 5. We went over different acoustic and articulatory differences in vowels and some information that will be on the upcoming test.
Laboratory Phonetics
Thomas Parrell
Class Notes
Linguistics, phonetics, vowels, phonemes, Acoustics, speech pathology, articulation
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Mulford on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING253 at University of Delaware taught by Thomas Parrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.

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Date Created: 09/28/16
LING 253 CLASS NOTES FOR 9/27/26 Vowel Descriptions Most vowel descriptions are based on auditory evaluation and acoustic measurement. Horizontal positions  Front- tongue moves to the front of the mouth  Back- tongue moves to the back of the mouth  Central- tongue is in the center Vertical positions (height  High- tongue is high in the mouth  Low- tongue is low in the mouth  Mid- tongue is in the center Roundedness  Rounded (there are only 4 of these in English)  Unrounded “Tenseness” (not a good defining feature for all languages, only Proto- Germanic languages use this as a distinguishing feature)  Tense o Seen in these words: heed, hayed, who’d, hod, hoed  Lax o Seen in these words: hid, head, hood, hud, had -- Note that monothongs are only indicated on a vowel chart because they take the characteristics of two sounds (imagine an arrow on the vowel chart) -- The Cardinal Vowels o A set of eight reference vowels that was produced by English Phonetician Daniel Jones o The two anchor vowels are the highest, frontest vowel possible and the lowest, backest vowel possible o The remaining six vowels are spaced at even intervals of frontness and lowness o The Cardinal Vowels are not from any one language and are just reference vowels o In English, central vowels only appear in unstressed syllables in English An English vowel chard is based on articulatory parameters. Once the spectrograph was invented, we started studying vowels in terms of their acoustics. Those acoustic dimensions supersede the articulatory dimensions. Spectrographs, however, still use roundedness as a defining characteristic. KNOW ALL VOWELS ON VOWEL CHART FOR EXAM Nasalized Vowels o Articulation: Vowels produced with a lower velum o These vowels are not contrastive in English (they cannot change the meaning of the word) o French, however, uses these vowels contrastively Vowel Length o Articulation: duration of vowel is relatively longer and sometimes longer vowels exhibit different qualities Voiceless Vowels o Articulation: Vowels produced without vocal fold vibrations are usually shorter than normal vowels o This normally isn’t distinguishable at the phonemic o Note that /h/ in English could be viewed as a voiceless vowel Creaky and Breathy Voice o Breathy: the vocal folds are held father apart o Creaky: vocal folds are held close together The most common vowel in English is…the schwa!


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