ARH: The Art Academy
ARH: The Art Academy ARH 316B
Popular in Survey of Eighteenth-Century Art and Culture
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Dengler on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARH 316B at University of Arizona taught by Professor Plax in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Survey of Eighteenth-Century Art and Culture in Art History at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
August 25, 2016 The Art Academy - Academies: -Supported by the state -Prestigious -Had certain standards/aesthetic ideas Practice drawings on which the student artists were criticized - -Members of the Royal French Academy had to do lots of sketches/drawings of the nude male model in complicated poses -Really important for the study of 17th-19th century art -Students who went into the academy already knew how to paint -The Academy molded their tastes -Important because, while it formed tastes and forced standards, people reacted against it because they were rebelling against the standards - History -Originally a place of intellectual exploration -Renaissance Academy of Painters - Originated as clubs for men in which they would discuss literature and art - In the Renaissance, there became a distinction between art as a craft -Morphed into a place to reﬁne and train artists in the intellectual aspects of art -Also, to teach them things they might not learn in a guild - study the structure of the human body (skeletons) -Wanted to get rid of the idea that art is just a manual labor - that it requires intellect -Meant to elevate the status of artists -Much of what they became were inﬂuenced by classical authors - 17th century -Louis XIV established an academy to control art (he liked to be in control) -Up until this point, all artists had to belong to the guild of painters, which was closely aligned with the Parliament of Paris - Louis XIV didn’t like that the Parliament of Paris had so much power over the artists - A bold political move of Louis XIV - A movement to separate artists from manual labors -Jean-Baptists Martin, Regular Meeting of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture at the Louvre, 1721 -Nobody is painting here -All the students had to attend monthly lectures to critique paintings and discuss the importance of art -A male organization - no females allowed yet -The Academy was to glorify Louis XIV as the great patron of the arts -Louis XIV Protector of the Arts -Louis XIV Patron of the Arts -Personiﬁcations of music, literature, etc. -Cover of a book of poems that praise Louis XIV - Philosophical and Aesthetic assumptions -Art is a noble practice, not a manual labor -Art is an intellectual discipline -All art must serve a function -Teach you something, be beautiful, and have a moral lesson -Beautiful Nature -Idealization -Charles Le Brun, Queen of Sheba at the Feet of Alexander - Artist used his intellect to come up with the ﬁgures and composition, made it teach a lesson, posed them a certain way, tried to make the ﬁgure beautiful (pick the best of nature and put them together in one imaginary ﬁgure because no one can be perfect) -Idea that art can make something perfect - Academy was organized on a hierarchical basis -Subject matter was ranked - (Persists throughout 18th century) - Genre Hierarchy - 1) Noble Genre - History painting: narrative painting (painting that tells a story from one of the great histories) - There is usually a text written down (you need to know your history/stories to understand them) - Includes classical/ancient history, classical mythology, Biblical history, the stories of great men - Pierre, Mignard, Christ and the Samarian Woman - Charles Le Brun, Queen of Sheba at the Feet of Alexander the Great - Important to make the paintings transparent - Charles Le Brun -Wrote a book called The Expression of the Passions to teach artists how to depict emotions and make them clear -2) Inferior Genre * frowned upon by the French academy because it wasn’t idealized, didn’t tell a story, etc. - Portraiture - Pierre Mignard, Equestrian Portrait of Louis XIV - Hyacinthe Rigaud, Portrait of Pierre Mignard - Still Life - Inanimate objects - Landscapes - Genre Scenes: a scene of everyday life - Jan Steen, The Feast of St. Nicolas - Gerard Terborch, Woman Washing Her Hands -Aesthetic Hierarchy - 1) Classical Antiquity (most valuable and important) - There were certain painters you should emulate - Painters on the “approved list” - Famous Apollo Belvedere: deemed the most beautiful ﬁgure -The pinnacle of perfection -Artists/students would try to learn the perfect proportions - Rafael - Guido Reni, Aurora -Guido was called the “divine Guido” -Early 17th century painter who was gloriﬁed - Nicolas Poissan - Painters on the “unapproved list” - Peter Paul Rubens -appeals more to the senses than the intellect (with color, emotion, joy, too exhuberent, moral message was overcome by visual eye candy) - Venetian Painters -Emphasized color over composition, too sensual, didn’t appeal to the intellect - Dutch Painting -Especially Dutch genre scenes -Gabriel Metsu, The Cook - Process of the Academy -Had to have a sponsor and sub -Agree Piece: you had to submit a piece to get accepted -As a student, you would follow a rigid course of training -First, you would copy - Studying statues to learn perfect proportions - Copy paintings of “approved” artists -Then, you would draw the nude model - In ofﬁcial settings at the academy - The guild couldn’t do this - Never drew the nude female model - because you were trying to depict great men - worry that female models would “excite” the male students -Reception piece: your “ﬁnal exam” piece -Subject would be assigned -6 months to ﬁnish -If accepted, you became a full member of the academy August 30, 2016 - With the war of Spanish succession, the funds were cut from the arts The academy still existed but it didn’t have a lot of commissions - - If you were accepted into the academy, you were accepted based on your genre (portrait, landscape, still life) - If you were accepted as a history painter, the secretary would write “accepted with this reception piece, then the title of the painting” They were automatically designated into this noble category by the title of their - painting - Advantages of being in the academy - In the time of Louis XIV, there was a huge demand for decorated rooms - they were paid well - Versailles, The Queen’s Guard Room Versailles, Ceiling of the salon of Venus - - Nicolas Largilliere, Charles Le Brun - First director of the academy - Analysis - There is a print of the painting in Versailles (Versailles, Franche-Comte Captured) Shows he was proud of his word - - Art is a learned process - Cast of classical bust/torso - Globe, portfolio, etc. - Drapery - a sign of wealth/power - Charles Le Brun ran a tight ship at the academy: very strict process - - Sebastien Le Clerc, Treatise on Perspective - Students had to learn perspective - Rubenist/Poussinist Controversy - Questioning of the academy’s hierarchy as well as its authority - Nicolas Poussin - on the “approved list” Part of the “old school” ideas - - Rubens - known for a very sensuous approach to color, very loose brush strokes, art that appealed not primarily to the intellect - New guard - new argument of art - Roger de Piles - Wrote a treatise in which he asked “why can’t there be more than one kind of perfection?” - A sensual quality of painting be what draws us into the art and then we discover the intellect - The war of Spanish successions - No public exhibitions during the war - Salon: students of the academy, once a year in the summer, there was a huge exhibition of art - Privilege of the art students Being able to exhibit in this salon was a very big deal - - Hademart, 1699 Salong, Grand Galerie of the Louvre - Got canceled during the war - Budget cuts, no royal commissions - Private patrons step in (ordinary, wealthy people) - Nicolas Lancret, Concert at Pierre Crozat’s House Context - - Pierre was known as the most wealthy man in France - Pierre was an art collector - Pierre started a kind of art academy - invited people to come talk about art and look at art - Became a sign of status - Pierre and his guys have more inﬂuence with the regent gone from Versailles - Louis XIV dies and his nephew becomes the regent until Louis XV is old enough to rule - Regent moved from Versailles back to Paris - Private patrons Wanted paintings that were pleasing to look at (entirely different taste of paintings) - - Commissioned art as part of a larger decoration scheme in Parisian townhouses - Changes - Academy doesn’t have as much inﬂuence - Shift in the people who commissioned - Different interest of style Reform of Painting - - Started by Louis XV and continued by Louis XVI - Saw the power of art as propaganda - Refunds art - During the reign of Louis XV - Lots of history painting, but very erotic subjects Francois Boucher, Diana After the Hunt; Jupiter in the Guise of Diana Seducing - Callisto - Very sensual, showing off female porcelain ﬁgure, pretty to look at, a lot to look at - Keeps eye moving around - No moral message During the reign of Louis XVI - - Wanted more of a moral message and more of a renewal of the Classical - The Academy in France established a branch of the Academy of Rome - As a student, you could enter a competition and if you won, you got a paid trip to study at Rome - Everyone wanted to learn in Rome Made students want to learn - - New category of literature and art criticism - At the Academy Exhibits - Anyone could go, look, and publish criticism (which was sold) There is a lot of writing about art in the 18th century - - La Font de Saint-Yenne - An old, dopey art critic - Caricatures make fun of him OTHER ACADEMIES - Academy in England - Only established in 1769 - Emulated the French Academy - Not a great deal of British support of art until 1760 when George II took the throne He was a great supporter of the arts - - Formally established the royal academy in 1769 - Johann Zoffany - Royal Academicians in General Assembly - In the paintings, we see some of the functions of the academy - Dr. Hunting Teaching at the Academy - Anatomy lesson - Sir Joshua Reynolds, - Self Portrait in the Academic Garb - Best known as a portraitist - Director of the British Academy - Painted himself to look intellectual Gave a series of lectures at the academy - - They were collected and published into Reynold’s discourses - Serious about the importance of art - Encouraged Neoclassical paintings with high moral messages - Parody of the School of Athens - While he was a serious painter, he was witty This is a parody making fun of the seriousness of art - - - Two Academic Nudes, or Academies - Sketches of the male ﬁgure - The male ﬁgure was the focus - Unﬁnished practice work Somerset House - - Used for the annual summer exhibition in Britain - Rowlandson, Stair Case caricature - No one is wearing underpants, so they are all staring at each other as they tumble down the staircase Exhibition of the Royal Academy, 1787 -
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