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Chapter 6: Making Life Works notes

by: Elizabeth Taflinger

Chapter 6: Making Life Works notes BIOL 2050-3201

Marketplace > Bowling Green State University > Science > BIOL 2050-3201 > Chapter 6 Making Life Works notes
Elizabeth Taflinger
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About this Document

These notes are from the class discussion talking about chapter six.
Biology Concepts II
Dr. Eileen M. Underwood
Class Notes
Energy, chemical, reactions




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Taflinger on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2050-3201 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dr. Eileen M. Underwood in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Biology Concepts II in Science at Bowling Green State University.

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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter 6: Making Life work  Requirements of the cell o A way to encode/transmit information o A membrane separating inside from out o Energy  ATP o The bonds linking these phosphate groups have potential energy  Metabolism o The reaction that happen in the body o Photographs: stores energy from the sun, these are plants o Autotrophs: carbon come from CO2 o Heterotrophs: they get energy from the things they eat o You take in macromolecules and break them up o Catabolism: breaks down molecules into smaller units, producing ATP o Anabolism: the building molecules from smaller units, requiring an input of energy (ATP)  Forms of energy o Chemical energy is a form of potential energy held in the chemical bonds between pairs of atoms in a molecule.  Chemical Reactions o Moving things around and changing the bond structure  Gibbs free energy o Amount of energy in a system available to do work o Energonic: is taking in the energy and storing energy o Exergonic: reactants have more energy than the products  Energy availability o Total energy = energy available to do work+ energy lost to entropy o Enthalpy: the total energy available o Entropy: the degree of disorder  Rate of Reaction o All reactions require an input of energy called activation energy to proceed o If you are trying to bring two things together, you will need to use energy and cells do this process with an enzyme. o Enzyme speeds up the reaction  Active Site formation o Structure defines the function o The amino acids on the long protein chain are spread out, once the protein folds then all the amino acids will meet up  Inhibitors/activators o Inhibitor reduces the rate of the reaction  Enzyme inhibitor o The inhibitor will bind and it will change the shape of the enzyme and this is called the allosteric inhibition. o Inhibitors: decreases the activity of enzymes o Activators: increase the activity of enymes o Enzyme inhibitors can also bind to a different site than the active site.  Regulation of chemical reactions o Have five reactions that will take place, starting with threonine and ending with isoleucine o Once the cell makes a lot of isoleucine: it will feed back and binds to the first enzyme in the pathway and stops the process o The enzyme threonine dehydrates is an example of an allosteric enzyme, an enzyme that is activated or inhibited when binding to another molecule changes its shape. o Negative feedback: the process of the final product inhibiting the first step of the reaction


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