Chapter 10 Notes
Chapter 10 Notes MKT 321
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Callie Lusk on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MKT 321 at Western Kentucky University taught by McAmis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
MKT 321 Exam #2 Preparation Chapter Ten Notes Motivation The reason for behavior o A motive is a construct representing an unobservable inner fore that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides a specific direction to that response. The Nature of Motivation There are two useful motivation theories: 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o A macro theory designed to account for most human behavior in general terms. o Based on four premises: All humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction. Some motives are more basic or critical than others The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated As the basic motives become satisfied, more advances motives come into play. o Maslow makes an emphasis on the need for self-actualization, as he says it is a healthy individual’s prime motivation. This means actualizing one’s potential becoming all one is capable of becoming. The hierarchy of needs goes as followed: Physiological or survival needs on bottom Safety needs (second to bottom) Belongingness needs (middle) Esteem needs (second to top) Self-actualization (top) 2. McGuire’s Psychological Motives o A fairly detailed set of motives used to account for specific aspects of consumer behavior. o McGuire developed a classification with 16 categories Two criteria determine four categories: Is the model of motivation cognitive or affective? Is the motive focused on preservation of the status quo or on growth? Four categories further subdivide: Is this behavior actively initiated or in response to the environment? Does this behavior help the individual achieve a new internal or a new external relationship to the environment? Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Marketing strategies are based on motivation conflict. o There are three types of motivation conflict, which includes: Approach-Approach motivational conflict A choice between two attractive alternatives. Approach-Avoidance Motivation conflict A choice with both positive and negative consequences. Avoidance-avoidance Motivation conflict A choice involving only undesirable outcomes Personality An individual’s characteristic response tendencies across similar situations. o While motivations are the energizing and directing force that makes consumer behavior purposeful and goal directed, the personality of the consumer guides and directs the behavior chose to accomplish goals in different situations. There are two approaches to personality: o 1. The Multitrait Approach The five-factor model is the most commonly used by marketers and identifies five basic traits that are formed by genetics and early learning. o 2. Single Trait Approach Consumer Ethnocentrism Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to be biased against the purchase of foreign products. Need for Cognition (NFC) Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to engage in and enjoy thinking. Consumers’ Need for uniqueness Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to pursue differentness relative to others through the acquisition, utilization, and disposition of consumer goods. Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Brand image o What people think of and feel when they hear/see a brand name Brand personality o A set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand and are a particular type of image that some brands acquire. There are three important advertising tactics: o Celebrity Endorsers o User Imagery o Executional Factors Emotion The identifiable specific feeling, and affect to refer to the liking/disliking aspect of the specific feeling. Emotions are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect behavior. o They are strongly linked to needs, motivation, and personality o Unmet needs create motivation which is related to the arousal component of emotion. o Personality also plays a role, e.g., some people are more emotional than others, a consumer trait referred to as affect intensity. Emotion arousal as a product Benefit o Consumers actively seek products whose primary or secondary benefit is emotion arousal. o Gratitude or the emotional appreciation of benefits received is a desirable consumer outcome that can lead to increased consumer trust and purchases. Emotion reduction as a product benefit o Marketers design or position many products to prevent or reduce the arousal of unpleasant emotions.
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