ANT 304, Week 2 08-31-16 Notes
ANT 304, Week 2 08-31-16 Notes ANT 304
Popular in Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory
Popular in Archaeology
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zeba Khetani on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in Archaeology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
08-31-16 ANT 304 1. Creation of the Earth a. James Ussher (Archbishop)- world was created in 4004 BC, created by the story of the Bible b. 1859: Charles Darwin with evolution and natural selection c. Spaniards and Native Americans: where do the other societies ﬁt in to the Bible story of how the world was created? How did they get to “the new world then”? 2. Anthropologist- studied strange and exotic societies reported by missionaries and explorers a. 1870s British anthropologist Edward Tyler- attempted to organize humanity with 3 stages of achievement i. savagery- hunters and gatherers ii. barbarism- cultivation, domestication, less nomadic iii. civilization- culturally advanced 1. his own Victorian society was the pinnacle of this category and that this was what all societies aimed to become iiii. savagery à barbarism: (continuous) it didn’t develop in one place and spread to another, rather it sprouted about in different places independently (parallel growth) 1. very few human experiences are unique, parallel development is always occurring b. cultural anthropologists- study contemporary people, who they can go talk to c. physical anthropologists- study physical human body d. archaeologists- study the past, material remains, study human society (not the objects, which are just a tool to study the past) i. Adolf Bandelier- visited Pueblo Indian groups 1. Worked backwards, from the known to the unknown, present to past 2. Remains the signiﬁcant principal for archaeological research today ii. Frank Hamilton Cushing- spent 5.5 years living with the Zuni (Pueblo society) 3. Human prehistory begins with the very ﬁrst stones & bones found (artifacts) and leads up to the present 4. Anthropological archaeology goals: a. Cultural history b. Reconstruction of ancient lifestyles c. Why and how human culture changed 5. 1950s: archaeologists got tired of just making an inventory of artifacts so they began to believe that advancements in society occurred due to ecological and environmental factors a. Willie (Peru)- introduced settlement pattern archaeology 6. 1960s: archaeologies felt that they weren’t getting enough information a. description à explanation b. Lewis Binford- “new archaeology”- presumed all aspects of human society were preserved (not just “hard” artifacts) i. Study economy and such through the ﬁndings ii. Prophet of archaeology iii. Bully- big guy, loud voice; bullied anyone who opposed him ii. Prophet of archaeology iii. Bully- big guy, loud voice; bullied anyone who opposed him 1. You’re either with me or inconsequential iiii. This wasn’t actually NEW, but he was unable to get it across because nobody liked him; he didn’t get credit until after he died 7. Processual archaeology- explains processes a. Post-processual archaeology 2
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