MENA 160A1 Notes week 6
MENA 160A1 Notes week 6 MENA 160A1
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by madelinef on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MENA 160A1 at University of Arizona taught by Professor Scott Lucas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see The Religion of Islam in Religious Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
MENA 160A1 Week 7 Notes -Midterm next Wednesday! A Final Classification o Mutawatir hadith: a hadith that is so massively transmitted that it could not possibly have been forged. The Qur’an is an example. Even though it is a text and not a hadith. o Ahad hadith- anything that is not mutawatir. What is the value of Ahad hadiths in Islamic law? How can an ahad hadith yield certain knowledge? Do all schools of Sunni law treat hadiths the same way? o Determine strong or weak through the chain of transmitters (Isnad) A Historical Overview of Islam Six Periods of History o Caliphates (Caliph)- only 1 at a time, unified entity, tremendous expansion of Muslim rule. The areas ended up fragmenting into Sultanates. o Sultanates (Sultan)- A state. Can be very large, but less of religious overtones of a caliphates. o Invaders- One from West and one from East. Eastern began in late 11 century (around when crusades came about in Catholicism) o Empires (Sultan, Shah)- Africa, parts of India and Middle East, Great Britain played a major role in conquering part of the Muslim empire. 2 nd biggest is France. o European Colonialism- Netherlands was biggest! Ended about WWII is when we start to see independent nation states. o Nation States Caliphates (Caliph) o Successor to the messenger of God. Prohphethood ended with Muhammad so no caliph will claim to be a Prophet but did have some religious authority. o The first four Calipha (632-661)- Medina, Kufa A Caliph is kind of like a kingship where it is passed from father to son or something like that. o Umayyad Caliphate (661-750)- Syria Powerful family Branch of Quraysh Architectural wonders built during this time period Stresses Arabic as a religious, cultural, and administration language. o ‘Abbasid Caliphate (750-900) - Baghad Baghad didn’t exist until ‘Abbasid and the 2 ndcaliph created it All the various disciplines (law, literature, poetry, etc.) were in Arabic as well. o Fatimid Caliphate (909-1173): Cairo Created Cairo o Spanish Umayyad Caliphate (929-1009): Cordova Local dynasty took over (Umayyad) Sultanates- we do not need to about these things really o Ghaznavids- 998-1187 o Seljuqs of Rum o Sultanates of Delhi o Mamluks o Kingdom of Mali o Aceh Invaders o Crusaders (1098-1291) Jerusalem (1099-1187) , Saladin (1171-93), Reconquista in Spain ( 1085-1250 Muslim rule in Spain ends 1492) o Mongols Chingiz Khan’s Raids (1219-1223) Hulegu Sack of Baghad Descendants become Muslims around 1300 Three Empires o Ottomans Constantinople/Istanbul Arab World 1300-1924 o Safavids (1501-1737): Isfahan Iran becomes Shi’ite Mystical Brotherhood o Mughals of India (1526-1707 ) Taj Mahal- commissioned by Muslims but architect was from central Asia Most powerful of these 3 dynasties Back to the Beginning o Succession dispute after Muhammad The Helpers: Divided rule Helpers were the native tribes of Medina. Invited Muhammad to emigrate Abu Bakr and ‘Umar: Caliphs from Quraysh only No more Qur’an passages were created after Muhammad died. Only Hadiths but not any more additions to the Qur’an Also no Prophets after Muhammad o Abu Bakr- father in law of the Prophet. One of the 1 malest converts to Islam. Apostasy wars Prophet indicated/hinted that Abu Bakr should be successor, and he was elected/selected as it. o ‘Umar- friends with Abu Bakr. Both argued with the Helpers Conquests of Syria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran ‘Uthman (644-656) o ‘Umar killed bya non-Muslim in 644 o Election of ‘Uthman 6 senior Companions of Quraysh, including ‘Ali and ‘Uthman (related to Muhammad and came from powerful branch of Quraysh so his early conversion was risky and valued by Muhammad) ‘Umar did this as he was on his deathbed. All of the 6 were early converts to Islam Tie breaker and ‘Uthman won o Codification of the Qur’an o Discontent and mutiny: nepotism o Assassination by Muslims o Where was ‘Ali? ‘Ali was trying to mediate between the rebels from Medina. He was not allowed to leave mainly because he had good advice. Today, no one is responsible for the killing of ‘Uthman! The 1 Civil War (fitna) o ‘Ali’s oath of allegiance o Battle of the Camel (656)- ‘Ali vs. A’isha (Prophets widow), Talha (senior companion), Zubayr (companion, fled because he was embarrassed but killed while fleeing) Talha and Zubayr= die “Ali is victorious! o Siffin (657)- ‘Ali vs. Mu’awiya (governor of Syria. Refused to recognize Ali as caliph until he turned over killers but Ali said the opposite.) Battle that lasted several months o Arbitration Ali went with this but it was a fatal mistake. Mu’awiya had a loyal and good representative. Ali was picked by his followers but wasn’t really super loyal to Ali. Ali also had some zealous followers who felt arbitration was a major sin and therefore he was no longer a Muslim. o Kharijites: a grave sinner is a disbeliever o ‘Ali is murdered in 661 by a Kharijite Mu’awiya o Foundation of the Umayyad Caliphate o On the side of those who fought against the Muslims o Decides to make Caliph appointing lie a kingship, where the Caliph appoints the next one before he dies. o Makes peace with Hasan b. ‘Ali (661) o Siege of Constantinople and minor conquests o Appointed son Yazid a successor Outbreak of second civil war Revolt of Husayn b. ‘Ali in 680Karbala’ Husayn felt he was the leader of the Muslim community Revolt of Ibn Zubayr in Mecca and Medina Yazid dies in 683