ANT 304, Week 6 09-26-16 Notes
ANT 304, Week 6 09-26-16 Notes ANT 304
Popular in Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zeba Khetani on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in Archaeology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
09-26-16 ANT 304 1. Clovis ﬂourished 11,500-11,000 years ago for 500 years and then vanished a. New hunter gatherer groups b. Coincides with the disappearance ice age big game animals throughout the world i. Mammoth, mastodon, bison, sabretooth cats 2. Account for extinction of megafauna (large animals) a. Overkill hypothesis: idea that Paleo-Indian hunters overkilled the new world large animals through intensive hunting: no previous predators i. Problem: many animals were going extinct before Paleo-Indian ii. Paleo-Indian groups were too small to kill large (herds of) animals b. Climate change: melted ice, warming causes new environments to form and the habitat that the animals are used to is shrinking i. This type of change has happened before, so why couldn’t they survive this one? c. Seasonal contrast: especially hard for the young and not enough survived to reproduce 3. About 8,000 years ago, modern geography of North America is in place a. Still have hunters and gatherers b. Move out of Paleo-Indian to archaic- still hunting & gathering groups c. Celebrations when people gather at certain cites where pecans grow, etc. i. When the resources diminish, they splinter back off to different pecan trees, animals, etc. 4. Archaic group trends a. Smaller animals (white tailed deer), birds (seasonal, aquatic, etc.), ﬁsh b. Less mobility- moved according to seasons rather than following herds i. Only move 3-4 times and stay sedentary for a few months c. Move towards sedentary settlement i. Usually come back to the same place every season ii. Villages come into play 5. One region that continues with hunter gatherer tradition like Paleo-Indians, but is in the Archaic period a. Alaska to Texas to the Gulf of Mexico b. Big game hunting survives- Bison belt 6. Hunting and gathering lasted until European contact 7. Bison kill sites a. Stampede bison off cliffs and then retrieve their resources b. Bison bones lie there, dirt piles up, more bison bones, etc. c. Cyclical 8. Specialized lifeways a. More tools, more varieties due to region b. Emphasis on the gathering- lots of milling tools: grinding tools i. Mano & Metate- handheld, grind by mano on metate ii. Pestle & Mortar- something is thrown into channel and then pounded and mashed c. Continued use of atlatl 2 2
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