ANT 304, Week 6 09-28-16 Notes
ANT 304, Week 6 09-28-16 Notes ANT 304
Popular in Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zeba Khetani on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in Archaeology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
09-28-16 ANT 304 ARCHAIC PERIOD CONTINUED 1. Archaic period- humans are more aware of their environment and learn to adapt to them: foundation of many societies to follow a. What grows in what season b. What can you and can’t you eat c. Change the way they make clothes 2. Late Prehistoric time a. Reﬁned tools- bow & arrow b. More bone artifacts (due to preservation) c. Intro to pottery- implies that people are less mobile and at a semi-permanent settlement d. Horticulturists (agriculturalists) i. Maize (corn) ii. Beans iii. Squash iiii. Potatoes v. Tomatoes vi. Cotton vii. Chocolate e. Domestication- speciﬁc relationship between humans and plants/animals i. Interdependent relationship ii. Not originally intentional- wolf 1. Wolf- dogs 2. Artiﬁcial selection POLITICAL ORGANIZATION 1. Political organization- concerned with the management of the affairs of public policy of a society a. Present in ALL societies b. Maintains social order and reduces disorder c. 4 basic forms: i. informal/decentralized 1. Bands- small autonomous group, least complicated form of political organization a. Associated nuclear families b. Stay together if there are resources in the environment to provide for them all; once resources diminish, they split into new smaller bands c. Democratic- decisions are made by consensus of all adult members (men and women) d. No private ownership (food) e. Only rank- age, sex 2. Tribes- larger than bands (~2000), several bands w/ alliances a. Informal leadership within tribes i. Group decisions by “elders” ii. Some form of food production ii. Centralized 1. Chiefdoms- ranked society a. Every member has a position in the hierarchy- based on their relationship to the chief a. Every member has a position in the hierarchy- based on their relationship to the chief b. Chief has true authority- takes care of community’s affairs, distribute land, unite people, recruit members for military, controls all productive activities c. Redistributive- make/collect/grow products and all of them are distributed equally among the chiefdom 2. States- civilization a. Idea of permanent government b. Can use legitimized force to regulate the affairs of citizens & with other states c. Only in societies with numerous diverse groups and social classes; brings together all of this under a common rule d. Divided into social classes and economic functions & wealth are distributed unequally e. Market economy (lot of surpluses), which allows intense specialization of labor d. 2 forms of control: i. Internalized- keep people from doing/committing certain kinds of acts; not from fear of punishment but rather from shame, etc. 1. Karma internal guilt 2. Not wholly sufﬁcient ii. Externalized- institutions that are designed to encouraged conformity 1. Sanctions- positive (incentives) and negative (ostracizing) 2. Formal sanctions- always organized (regulate behavior in a certain way a. Positive: military award 3. Informal sanctions- abrupt, unexpected a. Positive: people jump and cheer for a goal b. Negative: accidentally cut someone off and someone ﬂips you off 2
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