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REL 1020 Sikhism

by: jschric

REL 1020 Sikhism REL 1020

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Sikhism, 9/13. Test 2
World Religions
Brett Patterson
Class Notes
into to world religions, Clemson, rel, 1020
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by jschric on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to REL 1020 at Clemson University taught by Brett Patterson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see World Religions in Religion at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 09/28/16
Sikhism Overview • There  are  approximately  25  million  Sikhs ○ Nearly  2  million  living  outside  of  India • The  Punjab  region  of  northwestern  India  (border  w  Pakistan),  Sikhism's   homeland,  continues  to  be  it's  geographical  center • Theologically,  Sikhism  intermixes  concepts  that  are  common  either  to  Hinduism   (samsara)  or  to  Islam  (monotheism) Origins • The  term  sikh  is  derived  from  an  ancient  Sanskrit  term  that  means  "disciple" ○ Sikhs  are  disciples  of  the  ten  historical  Gurus  of  the  Adi  Granth  (Sri  Guru   Granth  Sahib),  its  most  sacred  text  and  for  the  past  four  hundred  years,  its   Guru. • The  life  of  Guru  Nanak ○ Born  1469CE  near  Lahore  (Pakistan)   ○ Experienced  a  revelation  of  God  when  he  was  bout  30  after  writing  hymns   w  Muslim  musician:  God  is  not  Hindu  of  Muslim Died  1539,  having  established  the  Sikh  religion  and  communith­‐  or  Pan-­‐ ○ travels  through  India Nanak's  Teachings • Rejection  of  hindu  and  muslim  rituals:  peace  between  them • Monotheism • Equality  across  caste/gender/belief • Doing  good  deeds • First  settlement  in  Kartarpur  with  first  dharmsala(original)  or  gurdwara(sikh   place  of  worship) Followers:  The  Path • Guru  Nanak's  9  successo--­‐linked  by  divine  essence  (IWR  228) ○ Guru  Arjan  (5)  constructed  the  Golden  Temple  and  compiled  the  Adi   Granth ○ Guru  Gobind  Singh  (10)  established  Adi  Granth  as  guru  and  founded  the   Khalsa:  militarism  and  baptism  ("pure  ones") • Sikhs  and  Nationalism ○ 1947  Pakistan  divide:  into  India "Khalistan"  movement  prominent  in  late  20th  C. ○ ○ "Operation  Blue  Star"  (Indian  occupation  of  Sikh  sites)  and  the   assassination  of  Prime  Minister  Indira  Gandhi  in  1984  marked  the  most   violent  phase  of  Sikh  nationalism • Sikhs  and  Nationalism ○ 1947  Pakistan  divide:  into  India ○ "Khalistan"  movement  prominent  in  late  20th  C. ○ "Operation  Blue  Star"  (Indian  occupation  of  Sikh  sites)  and  the   assassination  of  Prime  Minister  Indira  Gandhi  in  1984  marked  the  most   violent  phase  of  Sikh  nationalism ○ 2004  First  Sikh  Prime  Minister  in  India • Sikh  Identity Modern  Challenges  (wearing  the  turban,  etc) ○ Scripture  and  Monotheism • Sikh  Scripture ○ The  Adi  Granth  (traditionally  Shri  Guru  Granth  Sahib)  is  Sikhism's  most   sacred  text  (1430  pages) ○ Other  texts  include  the  Dasam  Granth  and  the  Rahit  (Khalsa  ideals) • Spiritual  Liberation  through  Union  with  God  (monotheism)   ○ God  is  one,  and  immanent  in  creation,  the  Guru  (Vahiguru) ○ Humans  are  beset  by  haumai,  self  centeredness,  but  through  God's  grace,   humans  can  know  hukam,  the  divine  order. Liberation • God  as  Nirankar  (formless):  not  described  in  human  terms  like  gender • Mukti:  spiritual  liberation  (release  from  samsara),  the  infinitely  blissful  state  of   being  in  the  presence  of  God • The  flaws  of  haumai  (self  centered)are  overcome  through  attention  to  the   presence  of  God,  who  is  believed  to  be  immanent  in  human  beings  and  all  of   creation:  Creator/Preserver/Destroyer  (like  Brahma,  Vishnu,  and  Shiva) • Meditation  on  the  name  of  God  (nam)  is  the  most  effective  means  of  being   aware  of  God's  presence:  devotional  praise Purpose  of  Life • Sikhs  believe  that  God  dwells  within  everyone,  but  human  beings  are  beset  with   haumai  (they  are  self  centered:  5  vices:  lust/anger/greed/attachment/pride)   causing  us  to  be  self  centered  instead  of  God  centered • The  world  is  permeated  with  hukam  (divine  order),  living  in  accord  with  hukam   requires  ethical  behavior • Receive  grace  from  God,  respond  in  loving  devotion,  meditation  in  the  name  of   God Khalsa • Teachings  of  Guru  Gobind  Singh  and  the  Khalsa ○ About  15%  of  Sikhas  have  undergone  initiaion  into  the  Khalsa,  but  70%   are  popularly  considered  members ○ Khalsa  ideals  tend  to  define  the  proper  Sikh  way  of  life ○ 4  prohibitions:  cutting  hair/eating  improper  meat/sex  before   marriage/tobacco  use ○ Requirement  to  don  the  5  K's § Uncut  hair  (kes) are  popularly  considered  members ○ Khalsa  ideals  tend  to  define  the  proper  Sikh  way  of  life ○ 4  prohibitions:  cutting  hair/eating  improper  meat/sex  before   marriage/tobacco  use Requirement  to  don  the  5  K's ○ § Uncut  hair  (kes) § Small  comb  worn  in  the  hair  (kangha) § Steel  bracelet  (kara) § Sword  (kirpan) § Pair  of  shorts  (kachh) A  Way  of  life • Daily  devotional  practices ○ Nam  simaran  "rememberence  of  the  Name"  is  practiced  through § Repeating  one  of  the  names  of  God § Kirtan,  the  singing  of  hymns Meditation  and  daily  prayers § ○ The  gurdwara § The  sikh  place  of  worship,  always  with  a    copy  of  the  Adi  Granth § Worship  takes  place  on  any  day § Free  meals  are  served  in  the  langar Sikh  Culture • Life  cycle  rituals ○ Birth  and  naming  of  children ○ Tying  of  son's  first  turban ○ Marriage ○ Funeral  ritual  centered  on  cremation • Worship,  work,  charity ○ Guiding  principles  of  Sikh  life • Women  in  Sikhism ○ Traditionally  sikhism  has  been  quite  patriarchal,  but  egalitarian  with   regard  to  spiritual  liberation.


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