REL 1020 Confucianism & Daoism
REL 1020 Confucianism & Daoism REL 1020
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by jschric on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to REL 1020 at Clemson University taught by Brett Patterson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see World Religions in Religion at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Confucianism & Daoism History of Confucianism • Shang dynasty (1600-‐1046 BCE) to Zhou Dynasty -256 BCE) ○ Transition from Shangdi to Tian as spiritual authority • Ru (Scholars and religious leaders) tradition • Confucious (Kong Qiu, 551-‐479BCE): pulled together, not founder ○ Followers compiled sayings in Analects • Mencius (371-‐289 BCE) in hostile period of Warning States • Han Dynasty orthodoxy (206 BCE to 220 CE) supported • To present with Daoism and Buddhism • Neo-‐Confucianism: since 12th century • Confucianism as official ideology (IWR 274) • Rejection of confucianism in 19/20 century China: New Culture Movement and Communist Movement • Revival since 1970s, especially in early 21st century (govt. support) History of Daoism • Laozi: mysterious figures, contemporary of Confucious • Zhuangzi: also, relativistic thinking • Organized Daoism: divinization of Laozi to teach salvation ○ Celestial Masters: manifestations of Dao § Zhang Ling's vision of Laozi: commissioned to be Tianshi (celestial master) § Rival shadow government during Han Dynasty • Medieval Daoism: more central, meditation, universal salvation ○ Moral values and monasticism developed (IWR 280) • Modern Daoism: largely retreat vs New Culture and Communism ○ 1970s onward: period of some renewal Central Beliefs • Ancient Chinese Beliefs ○ The Book of Changes ○ No creation myth A beginning of undifferentiated chaos ○ ○ Two qi (energies) § Two forces at odds with each other □ Initial movement of yang □ Response movement of yin ○ No creation myth ○ A beginning of undifferentiated chaos ○ Two qi (energies) § Two forces at odds with each other □ Initial movement of yang □ Response movement of yin ○ Equilibrium and interaction of yang and yin: harmony ○ Ceaseless flow of forces ○ Wuxing (5 elemental phases) § Metal/wood/fire/water/soil § IWR 249 ○ 5 flavors/colors ○ Human Body: meeting of forces § Yang: Hun (light/pure/rising/top of circle, white part) § Yin: Po (heavy/turgid/sinking/bottom of circle, dark part) ○ Spirit World: gods and ghosts § Shen (benevlonet spirits) § Gui (malevolent spirits) ○ Ancestors ○ Shangdi (Lord on High) § Supreme deity of the Shang (1600 -‐1046 BCE) § Giver of blessings (de: power) § Receiver of sacrifice ○ Zhou Dynasty § 1122-‐256 BCE § Tian replaced Shangdi □ Source of all things (including political power) □ Impartial judge of moral behavior (worthy king/Ming: political authority) § Primacy of Tian and intimacy with human elect § The dao of Tian § The moral imperative of -‐tied to civilization and its survival (IWR 255 -‐257) □ Ren (benevolence)/Li (rituals)/ Junzi (virtuous) • Confucianism ○ Analects (collection of sayings) ○ Human nature: capacity to discern Tian in nature and history § Appeal not just to rulers, but to moral person ○ Moral imperative and cultivation: order Filial piety: honor ancestors § ○ Scholastic learning ○ Social and political activism ○ Human perfectibility (de, power) ○ Human co-‐equality with Tian and Di ○ Moral imperative and cultivation: order § Filial piety: honor ancestors ○ Scholastic learning ○ Social and political activism ○ Human perfectibility (de, power) ○ Human co-‐equality with Tian and Di ○ Ultimate goal of sagehood (shengren) ○ Neisheng weiwang: moral perfection and political prowess • Daoism ○ Focus on healthy life (acupuncture, herbal recipes, etc) ○ Laozi § Wuwel: Action without intention § Ziran: natural spontaneity ○ Zhuangzi § Xinzhai: fasting the mind/heart § Zuowang: sitting and forgetting ○ Hints of immortality in the Laozi and Zhuangzi Health, long life, immortality (against forces of decay) ○ ○ Alchemy ○ Daoist deities • Guide to Life ○ No almighty creator, demonic power, original sin Ultimate reality: ○ § Tian (confucianism) § Dao (Daoism) ○ Confucianism § Behave ethically in accordance with the dictates of the Tian § Be socially active § Be intent on learning § Do not do unto others what you do not want done to you § Learn to be authentically human § Enact the will of Tian § Improve the human condition Be involved with the community § § Pursue learning and education ○ Daoism § Be in harmony with the Dao § Be natural and spontaneous § Live a healthy and simple life § Live long § Exemplify the Dao § Love nature ○ Confucian Rituals § Sacrifice to Tian and Di § Live a healthy and simple life Live long § § Exemplify the Dao § Love nature ○ Confucian Rituals § Sacrifice to Tian and Di § Sacrifices to Confucius § Family rituals ○ Daoist Communal Festivals and Liturgies § Zhai (fasts) § Jiao (communal offerings)
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