Chapter 5: The Rise of Chlorophyll 9/28/16
Chapter 5: The Rise of Chlorophyll 9/28/16 PLS 150
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsea Opong-Wadeer on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PLS 150 at University of Rhode Island taught by Nathaniel Mitkowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Plants, People and the Planet in Plant Science at University of Rhode Island.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter 5: The Rise of Chlorophyll 9/28/16 Where did life come from? Deism? Creationism? o Creationism: God created the Earth Aliens? Panspermia? o Life on other planets, asteroid carrying life landed on Earth so here we are Evolution? Evolution: For life, you need building blocks On Earth, carbon-based molecules (building block) BUT molecules are complex o They don't just exist naturally Where did they come from? o Urey-Miller: created a theory on how life on Earth happened o this is how we think life originated on Earth Urey Miller: A dozen amino acids (proteins) Multiple sugars Repeated experiments produced even more molecules How do we go from molecules to life? Some assemble spontaneously Major gaps still exist Complex molecules are not life Replicating molecules are not life Or are they? Viruses? Questions on early Earth atmosphere Considerable debate still exists as to exactly how life actually started So now we got life... Living things respire Early life burned simple inorganic and organic molecules Dependent on presence of molecules, limits growth Chlorophyll allows life to expand (produces ultimate amount of sugar/very complex molecule/without it no life on Earth), explode across the planet Chlorophyll spreads: Cyanobacteria evolve it first They dump O2 in the atmosphere Evolution continues in O2 Cyanobacteria invade other, non photosynthetic cells The first of the true plants come about as symbionts Photosynthesis: Light + CO2 + H2O\0 = sugar + O2 Chlorophyll is the critical piece o All the sugars we eat and oxygen we breathe is because of Chlorophyll Chlorophyll is a pigment All pigments absorb and reflect light, resulting in a color Structure of the pigment determines what color it reflects Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light, it reflects green light o That's why plants are green Most pigments don't do anything with the light they absorb Chlorophyll uses the light it absorbs to move electrons o Other pigments don't use the light it absorbs o Chlorophyll is a working pigment Light reactions = need light Dark reactions = no light needed Plants are autotrophic (meaning plants make food) life People are heterotrophic (meaning eat other food) life Photosynthesis is just a way to turn the suns energy into physical energy we can use- we run on the sun! Light-dependent reactions: Light is absorbed as photons Chlorophyll strips electron from H20 Electrons are passed down ETC As electrons move, protons are pumped Differential in proton concentration drive ATP/NADPH2 production ATP: ATP – adenosine triphosphate Often considered cell currency It powers cellular reactions Breaking ATP releases energy NADPH2 another energy sink Everything runs on ATP These are light-dependent reactions Light-Independent reactions: Products from ETC power reactions A cyclic, recycling process CO2 fixed. More water used Sugars produced Called Calvin cycle (also known as C3 cycle): 3 carbon cycle- some plants use C4 cycle: starts with a 4 carbon molecule Carbon Fixation: When plants take CO2 and turn it into sugars is Carbon Fixation Fixed carbon is everywhere Anything made of plant material Oils and fossil fuels Feynman once said, trees are made of air
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