History 100:Ancient Civilizations Week 1
History 100:Ancient Civilizations Week 1 History 100
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Davet on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 100 at Shepherd University taught by Dr. Gordon in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
History 100 Week 1 Outline "What's an Agricultural Society, Anyway?" I. What is "civilization?" A. Life Before Civilization: Gathering and Hunting: Before civilizations existed, people hunted and gathered their food. These people developed complex language, art, religious concepts, but were nomadic. B. Civilization: Farms and Cities: Farms provide a more regular source of food and cease the constant obsession over finding food. People begin to make tools, build houses, specialize labor, etc. Farmers grew crops and sold to city citizens in exchange for tools. C. The Rise of Inequality: Class systems develop slowly with the rise of warriors. Warriors protected the wealth of their cities and demanded priviledges. Civilizations cause concentration of power. II.Mesopotamia(5000-2000 BC, Iraq, West Asia) A.The World's First Civilization: Mesopotamia developed civilization around 5000 BC, took shape between two rivers; TIgris and Euphrates. B.The Big Resource:River Water: River water was used for irrigation, larger groups built canals C.Some Mesopotamian Firsts: 1.The Plow-Animals at work, Farmers trained animals to create trenches, domestication of animals 2.Writing- People began to keep records of business affairs 3.Chariot-Bronze Age mobility, cities fought over wealth, jealousy ensued, and so chariots were used as protection when violence occurred III.Rome(300 BC-400 AD, Europe, Italy) A.Farm Land With a Big Sea in the Middle: Rome developed into a large kingdom stretching 2000 miles, located near the Mediterranean Sea. It slowly began to include farmland, and the boundaries of Rome were marked by the boundaries of the farmland. B.Centralized Power: Rome developed a strong government with central power 1.Armies and Roads- Rome had a large military and built 5,000 miles of roads, 2.One Set of Laws& One Language-Latin was the only language used as well as only one set of laws C.Inequality Goes Extreme:Citizens vs. Slaves: As there were no laws regarding the mistreatment of slaves, it often occurred. Slaves who work off their debt can become citizens D.Long Distance Trade with China and India: Roman citizens traded silver for silk cloth from China, India served as a middleman for this trade "China In Geography and Land" I.Asia at a Glance A.By Far the Largest Continent: Asia was separate from other cultures, B.Themes of Our Two Civilizations: 1.China-concerned with ethics regarding family and social roles 2.India-"upwards" focus, religious focus, 3.U.S.-freedom, idealism vs. Cynicism II.China:Central Country(East Asia,) A.Relative Isolation: China relatively isolated for much of its history, B.Reputation in East Asia: China's relative isolation gave way to the sense that China was the center of civilization C.China in Regions: China can be divided into North and South, 1.North China-tends to be dry, wheat is major crop 2.South China-lots of rain, rice is major crop, D.Major Rivers: 1.Yellow-basis of Chinese Civilization, (East Asia, China) carries tremendous amount of silt, great soil but can cause floods 2.Yangtze-South China III.China's Legendary Start A.Where Does the World Come From?: China focused on legends concerning the origins of civilizatio, focused on a culture of heroes(people who began customs that characterize later chinese life, B.Yao and Shun: 1.Yao-created agricultural calendar for regulating farm work, promoted moral cultivation through the use of rituals and music, considered his son unworthy to rule, 2.Shun-succeeds Yao, chosen by him, poor farmer who expressed good values
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