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Chapter 6

by: Maggie Kennedy
Maggie Kennedy
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Chapter 6
Applied Learning Theories
Kasia Gallo
Class Notes
learning, theories




Popular in Applied Learning Theories

Popular in Educational Psychology

This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maggie Kennedy on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EPY 4033/6033 at Mississippi State University taught by Kasia Gallo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Applied Learning Theories in Educational Psychology at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter  6   Social  cogni▯ve  theory     Learning  Theories     Social  Cogni▯ve  Theory     •  Social  Cogni▯ve  Theory:    -­‐learning  by  observa▯on  and  modeling     •  This  perspec▯ve  was  once  called  Social  Learning  Theory  to   reflect  the  fact  that  a  great  deal  of  human  learning  involves   watching  and  interac▯ng  with  other  people.     •  Deals  mostly  with  human  learning.       •  Social  Cogni▯ve  Theories  incorporate  such  cogni▯ve   processes  as  a▯en▯on  and  reten▯on  (memory)  into  their   explana▯ons  of  how  others  learn       QUESTIONS   •  Sconcerned  with  learning:    best  be  characterized  as  being    -­‐communica▯on  skills       •  Three  of  the  following  ideas  are  integral  part  of  social   cogni▯ve  theory.  Which  one  is  NOT?    -­‐Learning  can  occur  within  a  change  in  behavior    -­‐People  have  control  over  their  ac▯ons    -­‐Reinforcement  can  have  an  effect  not  only  on  the  person    being  reinforced  but  on  other  individuals  as  well    -­‐People  behaviors  are  always  the  direct  result  of  the    specific  environment  in  which  they  live     Principles  of  Social  Cogni▯ve  Theory     •  People  can  learn  by  observing  others  behaviors  an  the   consequences  that  result.     •  Learning  can  occur  without  a  change  in  behavior.     •  Cogni▯on  plays  important  role  in  learning.      -­‐Awareness  of  response:  reinforcement  and  response-­‐  punishment   con▯ngencies      -­‐Expecta▯ons:  regarding  future  con▯ngencies  are  important   factors  affec▯ng  learning  and  behavior     •  People  can  have  considerable  control  over  their  ac▯ons  and   environments.      -­‐Personal  Agency     Personal  Agency     •  Personal  Agency:      -­‐People  can  take  ac▯ve  steps  to  create  or   modify  their  environments  by  making  changes   themselves  or  by  convincing  other  to  offer   assistance  and  support       Example:  In  order  to  enhance  his  roller  ska▯ng   skills,  Marvin  enrolls  in  a  roller  ska▯ng  class     Generalized  Imita▯on   •  Explana▯on  of  imita▯on,  we  might  suggest  that  people  imitate   others  because  they’re  reinforced  for  doing  so.     •  Individual  uses  another  persons  behavior  as  a  discrimina▯ve   s▯mulus  for  an  imita▯ve  response.     •  The  observer  is  then  reinforced  in  some  way  for  displaying   imita▯on.     •  Generalized  Imita▯on:      -­‐maintained  by  an  intermi▯ent  reinforcement  schedule  where   individual  isn't  always  reinforced  for  mimicking  a  response  but  they   are  reinforced  o▯en  enough  that  they  con▯nue  to  copy  those  around   them.    -­‐Imita▯on  itself  becomes  a  habit     Reinforcement  and  Punishment:   Modeling     •  Observer  is  reinforced  by  the  model:    -­‐Adults  are  most  likely  to  reinforce  children  for  copying  behaviors   that  their  culture  says  to  be  appropriate       •  Observer  is  reinforced  by  a  third  person:    -­‐fashion       •  Imitated  behavior  itself  leas  to  reinforcing  consequences:      -­‐many  behaviors  we  learn  through  observa▯on  others  produce   sa▯sfying  (reinforcing)  results.     •  Consequences  of  the  models  behavior  affect  the  observers   behavior  vicariously   Consequences  of  the  model  behavior  affect  the   observers  behavior  VICARIOUSLY     •  Vicarious  Reinforcement:    -­‐observe  a  model  making  a  par▯cular  response,  they   also  observe  the  consequence  of  the  response.  If  model   is  reinforced  for  response,  the  observer  may  show  an   increase  in  that  response     •  Vicarious  Punishment:      -­‐occurs  when  the  tendency  to  engage  in  a  behavior  is   consequences  for  another  engaging  in  that  behavior    -­‐Bobo  Doll  experiment     EXAMPLES     •  Example  of  Vicarious  Reinforcement:    -­‐Alice  no▯ces  that  her  friend  Ellen  gets  extra   a▯en▯on  from  the  teacher  when  she  acts   helpless.  Alice  begins  to  act  helpless  as  well.       •  Example  of  Vicarious  Punishment:    -­‐Jane  sees  her  friend  Olivia  scolded  by  the   teacher  for  talking  out  of  turn  in  class.  Jane   stops  talking  out  of  turn  in  class   Delayed  Imita▯on     •  Delayed  Imita▯on:      -­‐some  behaviors  that  are  learned  through   observing  others  do  not  appear  un▯l  later     This  has  to  do  with  the  problems  of  social  learning       Strict  behaviorist  analysis  of  imita▯on,  social   cogni▯ve  theorist  have  suggested  that   consequences  o▯en  have  indirect  rather  than  direct   effects  on  learning  .     Cogni▯on  In  Social  Learning     •  Learning  involves  a  mental  (rather  than  behavioral)   change:      -­‐Social  Cogni▯ve  Theorists  make  a  dis▯nc▯on  between   learning  through  observa▯on  (Vicarious  Acquisi▯on)  and   the  actual  performance  of  what  has  been  learned    -­‐Vicarious  Acquisi▯on  vs.  Performance         •  Bandura  pointed  out  that  people  can  o▯en  verbally   imitated  a  behavior  they’ve  observed  but  haven't   own  behavior  has’t  changed    hing  new  even  though  their   Cogni▯on  In  Social  Learning     •  Certain  cogni▯ve  process  are  essen▯al  for  learning  to   occur:    -­‐  Social  Cogni▯ve  Theorist  describe  specific  mental   process  that  occur  when  people  are  learning  from  a   model.       •  Pay  a▯en▯on  to  what  the  model  is  doing     •  Mentally,  rehearsing  aspects  of  the  models   performance     •  Forming  mental  representa▯ons  (memory  codes)  of   what  the  model  has  done   Cogni▯on  In  Social  Learning     •  Learners  must  be  aware  of  exis▯ng  response-­‐   consequence  con▯ngencies:      -­‐according  to  social  cogni▯ve  theorist,   reinformcemt  and  punishment  have  li▯le  effect  on   learning  and  behavior  unless  people  have  mental   awareness  of  the  response.       •  Reinforcement  increases  the  likelihood  of  a   response  only  when  a  learner  realize  what   par▯cular  response  has  led  to  the  reinforcement     Cogni▯on  In  Social  Learning     •  Learners  form  expecta▯ons  for  future  response-­‐  consequence   con▯ngencies      -­‐  Social  cogni▯ve  theorist  suggest  that  people  are  more  likely  to   perform  behaviors  for  which  they  expect  a  pay  off.       •  When  learners  are  reinforced  or  punished  for  certain  behaviors,   they  are  likely  to  form  outcome  expecta▯ons-­‐  hypotheses  about   the  results  that  future  ac▯ons  are  likely  to  bring      -­‐result  in  maximizing  desired  consequences  and    minimizing   undesirable  one       •  Incen▯ve:    -­‐expecta▯ons  of  possible  future  reinforcement  influences  a   behavior  it  precede       Cogni▯on  In  Social  Learning     •  Learners  also  form  beliefs  about  their  ability   to  perform  various  behaviors:    -­‐not  only  do  people  form  expecta▯ons  about   the  likely  outcomes  of  various  behaviors  they   also  form  efficacy  expecta▯ons     •  Efficacy  Expecta▯ons:      -­‐belief  about  whether  they  themselves  can   execute  par▯cular  behaviors  successfully     Cogni▯on  In  Social  Learning     •  Outcome  and  efficacy  expecta▯ons  influence   cogni▯ve  that  underlie  learning:    -­‐  extent  to  which  learners  engage  in  cogni▯ve   processes  essen▯al  for  learning  (paying  a▯en▯on,   forming  memory  codes)  depends  on  their  beliefs   about  the  likelihood  that  learning  something  will   lead  to  reinforcement       People  are  less  likely  to  pay  a▯en▯on  to  something   when  they  don’t  think  it  will  pay  off   Cogni▯on  In  Social  Learning     •  The  nonoccurrence  of  expected  consequences  is  an   influen▯al  consequence  in  and  of  itself:       punishing    nce  of  expected  reinforcement  can  be     The  nonoccurrence  of  expected  punishment  cane  be   reinforcing       •  Both  of  these  principles  involve  situa▯ons  which   outcomes  expecta▯ons  are  not  being  met.     Reciprocal  Causa▯on     •  Social  cogni▯ve  theorist  argue  that  peoples  learning  and  long-­‐term   development  involve  the  interac▯on  of  3  general  set  of  variables:   1.  Environment  (E):  general  condi▯ons  and  immediate  s▯muli  in  the   outside  world   2.  Person  (P):  individuals  par▯cular  physical  characteris▯cs  (age,   gender,  a▯rac▯veness),  cogni▯ve  processes  (a▯en▯on,   reputa▯ons  (popular  kid)    d  culturally  conferred  roles  and   3.  Behavior  (B):  individual  observable  ac▯ons  and  reac▯ons     •  Reciprocal  Causa▯on:    -­‐each  of  these  three  sets  of  variable  influences  the  other  two.     Modeling     •  Children  begin  to  imitate  peoples  facial   expressions  within  day  or  two  a▯er  birth  and   possible  gene▯cally  prewired  with  an  ability  to   imitate      -­‐mirror  neurons       •  Modeling:    -­‐to  describe  what  a  model  does  (behavior)  and   at  ▯mes  to  describe  what  the  observer  does  (mimic   behavior)     How  Modeling  Affects  Behavior   Social  cogni▯ve  theorist  have  proposed  that   modeling  has  several  effects:     •  Modeling  teaches  new  behaviors     •  Modeling  influences  the  frequency  of  previously   learned  behavior     •  Modeling  may  encourage  previously  forbidden   behaviors     •  Modeling  increases  the  frequency  of  similar   behavior     Modeling  Influences  the  Frequency  of   Previously  Learned  Behavior     •  People  are  more  likely  to  exhibit  behaviors  they’ve  previously   learned  if  they  see  others  being  reinforced  for  such  behaviors    -­‐vicarious  reinforcement  has  a  facilita▯on  effect      -­‐  facilita▯on/  reinforcement       •  Pothers  being  punished    to  perform  behaviors  for  which  they’ve  seen    -­‐vicarious  reinforcement  has  an  inhibi▯on  effect    -­‐inhibi▯on/  punishment         •  Disinhibi▯on  Effect:    previously  inhibi▯on  behavior  is  now  occurring     Effec▯ve  Models     •  Live  Model:    -­‐actual  person  demonstra▯ng  a  par▯cular  behavior       •  Symbolic  Model:    -­‐person  or  character  portrayed  in  a  book,  film,   television,  show,  videogame,  or  other  medium       •  Verbal  Instruc▯ons:    -­‐descrip▯ons  of  how  to  behave  without  another   human  being,  either  live  of  symbolic,  being  present  at  all   Good  Models     •  Competent:    -­‐more  likely  to  imitate  others  if  they  are  perceived  as  competent,   capable  individuals       •  Pres▯gious  and  powerful:    -­‐individuals  who  have  high  status,  respect  and  power  are  more   likely  to  serve  as  a  model  for  others.       •  Behaves  in  gender-­‐approipiate  ways      -­‐relate  to  your  own  gender,  bc  you  can  iden▯fy  with  them  more       •  Models  behavior  is  relevant  to  observer  circumstances      -­‐Learners  are  more  likely  to  model  the  behaviors  of  people  they   view  as  similar  to  themselves  in  some  way   Behaviors  that  can  be  Learned   through  Modeling     Modeling  provides  and  important  mechanism  for  acquiring  a  wide  variety  of   psychomotor  behaviors,  both  rela▯vely  simple  ac▯ons  (brushing  teeth)  and   far  more  complex  one  (dancing).       •  Children  acquire  new  skills  when  they  watch  videos  of  people  effec▯vely   using  those  skills     •  Children  are  more  likely  to  resist  en▯cements  of  a  stranger  when    peer  has   modeled  techniques  for  resis▯ng  such  en▯cements     •  Chthey  see  others  react    emo▯onally  to  certain  s▯muli  in  the  same  way   •  Adults  are  more  likely  to  object  racist  statements  if  people  around  them   refuse  go  tolerate  such  statements     Cogni▯ve  Modeling     •  Cogni▯ve  Modeling:      -­‐  demonstra▯ng  how  to  do  but  also  how  to      think  about  a  task       Modeling  academic  skills  can  be  especially   effec▯ve  when  the  model  demonstrates  not  only   how  to  do  but  also  how  to  think  about  a  task       Condi▯ons  for  Effec▯ve  Modeling  to   Occur       •  A▯en▯on:    and  to  the  significant  aspect  of  the  model  behavior.    on  to  the  model     •  Reten▯on:      -­‐the  learner  must  remember  the  behavior  that’s  been  observed      -­‐Rehearsal:  repea▯ng  whatever  needs  to  be  remember  over  and  over      -­‐People  remember  a  models  behavior  easier  when  those  behaviors  have    verbal  labels       •  Replica▯on:    -­‐actual  replica▯on  of  the  behavior  that  a  model  has  demonstrated       •  Mo▯va▯on      -­‐learner  must  want  to  demonstrate  what  they’ve  learned     The  “Self”  Things     •  Self-­‐  Concept    -­‐who  am  I       •  Self-­‐Esteem:    -­‐How  good  am  I  as  a  person?     •  Self-­‐Efficacy:    -­‐  How  well  can  I  do  this  task?      -­‐Learners  belief  about  their  competence  in        specify  ac▯vity  or  domain.     Self-­‐Efficacy   •  Self-­‐efficacy:    -­‐Learners  are  most  likely  to  engage  in  certain   behaviors  when  they  believe  they  are  capable  of   execu▯ng    the  behaviors  successfully   How  Self-­‐Efficacy  Affects  Behavior   and  Cogni▯on     •  Choices  of  ac▯vity:   succeed;  tend  to  avoid  those  at  which  they  think  they  will  fail  ieve  they  can   •  Goals:   in  a  par▯cular  domain     goals  for  themselves  when  they  have  high  self-­‐efficacy   •  Effort  and  persistence:    -­‐People  with  high  sense  of  self-­‐efficacy  are  more  likely  to  exert  effort   when  they  work  at  a  task  and  they’re  more  likely  to  persist  when  they   encounter  obstacles    -­‐People  with  low  self-­‐efficacy  about  a  task  put  less  effort  into  it  and  give   up  more  quickly  in  the  face  of  difficulty     •  Learning  and  achievement:    -­‐Not  only  do  people  with  high  self-­‐efficacy  try  harder  and  persist  longer   but  they  also  employ  more  effec▯ve  study  skills  and  are  be▯er  able  to  delay   gra▯fica▯on  when  their  immediate  efforts  pay  off     Learning  and  Achievement   •    Not  only  do  people  with  high  self-­‐efficacy  try  harder  and  persist  longer   but  they  also  employ  more  effec▯ve  study  skills  and  are  be▯er  able  to   delay  gra▯fica▯on  when  their  immediate  efforts  pay  off     •  Self-­‐efficacy  for  Learning:    -­‐I  can  learn  this  if  I  put  my  mind  to  it      -­‐op▯mism  is  ideal       •  Self-­‐efficacy  for  Performance:    -­‐I  already  know  how  to  do  this      -­‐realism  is  ideal     •  Learners  are  at  a  disadvantage  when  they  undes▯mate  their  abili▯es     Development  of  Self-­‐efficacy     Social  cogni▯ve  theorist  have  found  that  several  factors  affect  the   development  of  self-­‐efficacy:   •  Previous  success  and  failures:    -­‐most  important  factor  affec▯ng  learners  self-­‐efficacy  is  their  own  history   of  success  and  failure     •  Current  emo▯onal  state:   •  Messages  from  others:    -­‐learners  self-­‐efficacy  belief  are  enhanced  when  other  people  praise   good  performance  or  provide  assurances  that  success  is  possible     •  Success  and  failures  of  others:    -­‐People  o▯en  acquire  informa▯on  about  their  self-­‐efficacy  for  a  new  task   or  domain  by  observing  the  successes  and  failure  of  individuals  similar  to   themselves   •  Success  and  failures  of  whole  group:    -­‐people  have  a  greater  self-­‐efficacy  when  they  are  in  a  group     Development  of  Self-­‐efficacy   •  Resilient  Self-­‐Efficacy:    -­‐they  learn  that  sustained  effort  and   perseverance  are  key  ingredients  for  that   success    -­‐develop  resilient  self-­‐efficacy   Development  of  Self-­‐efficacy   Successes  and  failures  of  others:     •  Coping  model:    -­‐shows  learners  that  success  does’t   necessarily  come  easily-­‐  that  they  must  work   and  prac▯ce  to  achieve  success-­‐  and  allows   them  to  observe  the  strategies  the  model  uses   to  gain  proficiency     Development  of  Self-­‐efficacy   Successes  and  failures  of  the  group  as  a  whole:      -­‐people  may  have  greater  self-­‐efficacy  when   they  work  in  a  group  than  when  they  work  alone,   and  especially  when  they  achieve  success  as  a   group       •  Collec▯ve  Self-­‐efficacy:    -­‐func▯on  not  only  of  peoples  percep▯ons  of   their  own  and  others  capabili▯es  but  also  of  their   percep▯on  of  how  effec▯vely  they  can  work   together  and  coordinate  their  roles  and   responsibili▯es     Self-­‐Regula▯on   •  As  social  cogni▯ve  theory  has  evolved  over  the  years,  it   has  increasingly  emphasized  the  role  of  self-­‐regula▯on   in  human  behavior   •  Through  both  direct  and  vicarious  reinforcement  and   punishment,  growing  children  gradually  learn  which   behaviors  are  and  are  not  acceptable  to  the  people   around  them   •  Eventually  they  develop  their  own  ideas  about   ac▯ons  accordingly    priate  and  they  choose  their   Elements  of  Self-­‐Regula▯on     •  Se▯ng  standards  and  goals       •  Self-­‐observa▯on       •  Self-­‐evalua▯on       •  Self-­‐reac▯on       •  Self-­‐reflec▯on     Elements  of  Self-­‐Regula▯on     •  Se▯ng  standards  and  goals:    -­‐mature  human  beings  tend  to  set  standards  for  their  own        behavior,  they  establish  criteria  regarding  what  cons▯tutes        acceptable  performance    -­‐iden▯fy  certain  goals  that  they  value  and  toward  which  they      direct  many  of  their  behaviors      -­‐behavior  of  model  affects  learners  standards  and  goals       •  Self-­‐observa▯on:      -­‐important  part  of  self-­‐regula▯on  if  to  observe  oneself  in  ac▯on.      -­‐to  make  progress  toward  important  goals,  people  must  be  aware    of  what  they  are  good  at  and  what  needs  improvement           Elements  of  Self-­‐Regula▯on     •  Self-­‐evalua▯on:    -­‐  peoples  behaviors  are  frequently  judged  by  others,  eventually   people  begin  to  judge  their  own  behaviors       •  Self-­‐reac▯on:    -­‐as  people  become  increasingly  self-­‐regula▯ng,  they  begin  to   they  did  good  when  they  accomplish  their  goals.    g  themselves     •  Self-­‐reflec▯on:    -­‐self-­‐regula▯ng  learners  reflect  on  and  cri▯cally  examine  their   goals,  past  successes  and  failures,  and  beliefs  about  their  abili▯es,  and   they  make  any  adjustment  to  goals,  behaviors,  and  beliefs  that  seem   warranted   Promo▯ng  Self-­‐Regulated  Behavior   •  Self-­‐Instruc▯on     •  Self-­‐Monitoring       •  Self-­‐Reinforcement       •  Self-­‐Imposed  S▯mulus  Control     Self-­‐Instruc▯on   •  One  effec▯ve  strategy  is  to  teach  learners  to  repeat  self-­‐instruc▯on   that  guide  their  behavior   •  Cogni▯ve  modeling:      -­‐adult  model  preforms  the  desired  task  while  verbalizing   instruc▯ons  that  guide  performance     •  Overt,  external  guidance:      -­‐the  child  performs  the  task  while  listening  to  the  adult  verbalize   the  instruc▯on     •  Overt  self-­‐guidance:      -­‐the  child  repeats  the  instruc▯ons  aloud  while  performing  the  task     •  Faded,  overt  self-­‐guidance:     •  Covert  self-­‐instruc▯on:   Self-­‐monitoring   •  Self-­‐monitoring:    -­‐another  method  that  can  help  people   control  their  own  behavior  is  simply  to  have   them  observe  and  assess  their  own  responses   just  as  someone  else  might  assess  those   response     Self-­‐Reinforcement   •  Self-­‐reinforcement:    -­‐giving  themselves  a  treat  or  special  privilege   when  they  behave  in  a  desired  fashion  and   withholding  reinforcement  when  they  don’t       •  When  students  learn  to  reinforce  themselves   for  their  accomplishment  their  study  habits   and  academic  performance  improve   Self-­‐imposed  S▯mulus  Control   •  Self-­‐imposed  S▯mulus  Control:    -­‐to  increase  a  par▯cular  desired  behavior,  and   individual  might  be  instructed  to  seek  out  an   environment  in  which  that  behavior  is  most  like  to  occur.       •  This  idea  can  be  translated  into  an  effec▯ve  means  of   promo▯ng  self-­‐regula▯on   •  Ex:  study  wants  to  study  more  then  he  should  spend   more  like  in  the  library     Educa▯onal  Implica▯ons  of  Social   Cogni▯ve  Theory   •  Students  o▯en  learn  a  great  deal  simply  by  observing  others     •  Describe  the  consequences  of  behaviors  can  effec▯vely  increase   appropriate  behavior  and  decrease  inappropriate     •  Modeling  provides  and  alterna▯ve  to  shaping  for  teaching  new   behaviors.     •  Teachers,  parents,  and  older  adults  must  model  appropriate   behaviors  and  take  care  not  to  model  inappropriate  behaviors     •  Exposure  to  a  variety  of  other  models  further  enhances  student   learning     •  Student  must  believe  they  are  capable  of  accomplishing  school  task     •  Teachers  should  help  students  set  realis▯c  expecta▯ons     •  Self-­‐regula▯on  techniques  provide  effec▯ve  methods  for  improving   student  behavior    


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