Chapter 6 EPY 4033/6033
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This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maggie Kennedy on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EPY 4033/6033 at Mississippi State University taught by Kasia Gallo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Applied Learning Theories in Educational Psychology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chapter 6 Social cogni▯ve theory Learning Theories Social Cogni▯ve Theory • Social Cogni▯ve Theory: -‐learning by observa▯on and modeling • This perspec▯ve was once called Social Learning Theory to reﬂect the fact that a great deal of human learning involves watching and interac▯ng with other people. • Deals mostly with human learning. • Social Cogni▯ve Theories incorporate such cogni▯ve processes as a▯en▯on and reten▯on (memory) into their explana▯ons of how others learn QUESTIONS • Sconcerned with learning: best be characterized as being -‐communica▯on skills • Three of the following ideas are integral part of social cogni▯ve theory. Which one is NOT? -‐Learning can occur within a change in behavior -‐People have control over their ac▯ons -‐Reinforcement can have an eﬀect not only on the person being reinforced but on other individuals as well -‐People behaviors are always the direct result of the speciﬁc environment in which they live Principles of Social Cogni▯ve Theory • People can learn by observing others behaviors an the consequences that result. • Learning can occur without a change in behavior. • Cogni▯on plays important role in learning. -‐Awareness of response: reinforcement and response-‐ punishment con▯ngencies -‐Expecta▯ons: regarding future con▯ngencies are important factors aﬀec▯ng learning and behavior • People can have considerable control over their ac▯ons and environments. -‐Personal Agency Personal Agency • Personal Agency: -‐People can take ac▯ve steps to create or modify their environments by making changes themselves or by convincing other to oﬀer assistance and support Example: In order to enhance his roller ska▯ng skills, Marvin enrolls in a roller ska▯ng class Generalized Imita▯on • Explana▯on of imita▯on, we might suggest that people imitate others because they’re reinforced for doing so. • Individual uses another persons behavior as a discrimina▯ve s▯mulus for an imita▯ve response. • The observer is then reinforced in some way for displaying imita▯on. • Generalized Imita▯on: -‐maintained by an intermi▯ent reinforcement schedule where individual isn't always reinforced for mimicking a response but they are reinforced o▯en enough that they con▯nue to copy those around them. -‐Imita▯on itself becomes a habit Reinforcement and Punishment: Modeling • Observer is reinforced by the model: -‐Adults are most likely to reinforce children for copying behaviors that their culture says to be appropriate • Observer is reinforced by a third person: -‐fashion • Imitated behavior itself leas to reinforcing consequences: -‐many behaviors we learn through observa▯on others produce sa▯sfying (reinforcing) results. • Consequences of the models behavior aﬀect the observers behavior vicariously Consequences of the model behavior aﬀect the observers behavior VICARIOUSLY • Vicarious Reinforcement: -‐observe a model making a par▯cular response, they also observe the consequence of the response. If model is reinforced for response, the observer may show an increase in that response • Vicarious Punishment: -‐occurs when the tendency to engage in a behavior is consequences for another engaging in that behavior -‐Bobo Doll experiment EXAMPLES • Example of Vicarious Reinforcement: -‐Alice no▯ces that her friend Ellen gets extra a▯en▯on from the teacher when she acts helpless. Alice begins to act helpless as well. • Example of Vicarious Punishment: -‐Jane sees her friend Olivia scolded by the teacher for talking out of turn in class. Jane stops talking out of turn in class Delayed Imita▯on • Delayed Imita▯on: -‐some behaviors that are learned through observing others do not appear un▯l later This has to do with the problems of social learning Strict behaviorist analysis of imita▯on, social cogni▯ve theorist have suggested that consequences o▯en have indirect rather than direct eﬀects on learning . Cogni▯on In Social Learning • Learning involves a mental (rather than behavioral) change: -‐Social Cogni▯ve Theorists make a dis▯nc▯on between learning through observa▯on (Vicarious Acquisi▯on) and the actual performance of what has been learned -‐Vicarious Acquisi▯on vs. Performance • Bandura pointed out that people can o▯en verbally imitated a behavior they’ve observed but haven't own behavior has’t changed hing new even though their Cogni▯on In Social Learning • Certain cogni▯ve process are essen▯al for learning to occur: -‐ Social Cogni▯ve Theorist describe speciﬁc mental process that occur when people are learning from a model. • Pay a▯en▯on to what the model is doing • Mentally, rehearsing aspects of the models performance • Forming mental representa▯ons (memory codes) of what the model has done Cogni▯on In Social Learning • Learners must be aware of exis▯ng response-‐ consequence con▯ngencies: -‐according to social cogni▯ve theorist, reinformcemt and punishment have li▯le eﬀect on learning and behavior unless people have mental awareness of the response. • Reinforcement increases the likelihood of a response only when a learner realize what par▯cular response has led to the reinforcement Cogni▯on In Social Learning • Learners form expecta▯ons for future response-‐ consequence con▯ngencies -‐ Social cogni▯ve theorist suggest that people are more likely to perform behaviors for which they expect a pay oﬀ. • When learners are reinforced or punished for certain behaviors, they are likely to form outcome expecta▯ons-‐ hypotheses about the results that future ac▯ons are likely to bring -‐result in maximizing desired consequences and minimizing undesirable one • Incen▯ve: -‐expecta▯ons of possible future reinforcement inﬂuences a behavior it precede Cogni▯on In Social Learning • Learners also form beliefs about their ability to perform various behaviors: -‐not only do people form expecta▯ons about the likely outcomes of various behaviors they also form eﬃcacy expecta▯ons • Eﬃcacy Expecta▯ons: -‐belief about whether they themselves can execute par▯cular behaviors successfully Cogni▯on In Social Learning • Outcome and eﬃcacy expecta▯ons inﬂuence cogni▯ve that underlie learning: -‐ extent to which learners engage in cogni▯ve processes essen▯al for learning (paying a▯en▯on, forming memory codes) depends on their beliefs about the likelihood that learning something will lead to reinforcement People are less likely to pay a▯en▯on to something when they don’t think it will pay oﬀ Cogni▯on In Social Learning • The nonoccurrence of expected consequences is an inﬂuen▯al consequence in and of itself: punishing nce of expected reinforcement can be The nonoccurrence of expected punishment cane be reinforcing • Both of these principles involve situa▯ons which outcomes expecta▯ons are not being met. Reciprocal Causa▯on • Social cogni▯ve theorist argue that peoples learning and long-‐term development involve the interac▯on of 3 general set of variables: 1. Environment (E): general condi▯ons and immediate s▯muli in the outside world 2. Person (P): individuals par▯cular physical characteris▯cs (age, gender, a▯rac▯veness), cogni▯ve processes (a▯en▯on, reputa▯ons (popular kid) d culturally conferred roles and 3. Behavior (B): individual observable ac▯ons and reac▯ons • Reciprocal Causa▯on: -‐each of these three sets of variable inﬂuences the other two. Modeling • Children begin to imitate peoples facial expressions within day or two a▯er birth and possible gene▯cally prewired with an ability to imitate -‐mirror neurons • Modeling: -‐to describe what a model does (behavior) and at ▯mes to describe what the observer does (mimic behavior) How Modeling Aﬀects Behavior Social cogni▯ve theorist have proposed that modeling has several eﬀects: • Modeling teaches new behaviors • Modeling inﬂuences the frequency of previously learned behavior • Modeling may encourage previously forbidden behaviors • Modeling increases the frequency of similar behavior Modeling Inﬂuences the Frequency of Previously Learned Behavior • People are more likely to exhibit behaviors they’ve previously learned if they see others being reinforced for such behaviors -‐vicarious reinforcement has a facilita▯on eﬀect -‐ facilita▯on/ reinforcement • Pothers being punished to perform behaviors for which they’ve seen -‐vicarious reinforcement has an inhibi▯on eﬀect -‐inhibi▯on/ punishment • Disinhibi▯on Eﬀect: previously inhibi▯on behavior is now occurring Eﬀec▯ve Models • Live Model: -‐actual person demonstra▯ng a par▯cular behavior • Symbolic Model: -‐person or character portrayed in a book, ﬁlm, television, show, videogame, or other medium • Verbal Instruc▯ons: -‐descrip▯ons of how to behave without another human being, either live of symbolic, being present at all Good Models • Competent: -‐more likely to imitate others if they are perceived as competent, capable individuals • Pres▯gious and powerful: -‐individuals who have high status, respect and power are more likely to serve as a model for others. • Behaves in gender-‐approipiate ways -‐relate to your own gender, bc you can iden▯fy with them more • Models behavior is relevant to observer circumstances -‐Learners are more likely to model the behaviors of people they view as similar to themselves in some way Behaviors that can be Learned through Modeling Modeling provides and important mechanism for acquiring a wide variety of psychomotor behaviors, both rela▯vely simple ac▯ons (brushing teeth) and far more complex one (dancing). • Children acquire new skills when they watch videos of people eﬀec▯vely using those skills • Children are more likely to resist en▯cements of a stranger when peer has modeled techniques for resis▯ng such en▯cements • Chthey see others react emo▯onally to certain s▯muli in the same way • Adults are more likely to object racist statements if people around them refuse go tolerate such statements Cogni▯ve Modeling • Cogni▯ve Modeling: -‐ demonstra▯ng how to do but also how to think about a task Modeling academic skills can be especially eﬀec▯ve when the model demonstrates not only how to do but also how to think about a task Condi▯ons for Eﬀec▯ve Modeling to Occur • A▯en▯on: and to the signiﬁcant aspect of the model behavior. on to the model • Reten▯on: -‐the learner must remember the behavior that’s been observed -‐Rehearsal: repea▯ng whatever needs to be remember over and over -‐People remember a models behavior easier when those behaviors have verbal labels • Replica▯on: -‐actual replica▯on of the behavior that a model has demonstrated • Mo▯va▯on -‐learner must want to demonstrate what they’ve learned The “Self” Things • Self-‐ Concept -‐who am I • Self-‐Esteem: -‐How good am I as a person? • Self-‐Eﬃcacy: -‐ How well can I do this task? -‐Learners belief about their competence in specify ac▯vity or domain. Self-‐Eﬃcacy • Self-‐eﬃcacy: -‐Learners are most likely to engage in certain behaviors when they believe they are capable of execu▯ng the behaviors successfully How Self-‐Eﬃcacy Aﬀects Behavior and Cogni▯on • Choices of ac▯vity: succeed; tend to avoid those at which they think they will fail ieve they can • Goals: in a par▯cular domain goals for themselves when they have high self-‐eﬃcacy • Eﬀort and persistence: -‐People with high sense of self-‐eﬃcacy are more likely to exert eﬀort when they work at a task and they’re more likely to persist when they encounter obstacles -‐People with low self-‐eﬃcacy about a task put less eﬀort into it and give up more quickly in the face of diﬃculty • Learning and achievement: -‐Not only do people with high self-‐eﬃcacy try harder and persist longer but they also employ more eﬀec▯ve study skills and are be▯er able to delay gra▯ﬁca▯on when their immediate eﬀorts pay oﬀ Learning and Achievement • Not only do people with high self-‐eﬃcacy try harder and persist longer but they also employ more eﬀec▯ve study skills and are be▯er able to delay gra▯ﬁca▯on when their immediate eﬀorts pay oﬀ • Self-‐eﬃcacy for Learning: -‐I can learn this if I put my mind to it -‐op▯mism is ideal • Self-‐eﬃcacy for Performance: -‐I already know how to do this -‐realism is ideal • Learners are at a disadvantage when they undes▯mate their abili▯es Development of Self-‐eﬃcacy Social cogni▯ve theorist have found that several factors aﬀect the development of self-‐eﬃcacy: • Previous success and failures: -‐most important factor aﬀec▯ng learners self-‐eﬃcacy is their own history of success and failure • Current emo▯onal state: • Messages from others: -‐learners self-‐eﬃcacy belief are enhanced when other people praise good performance or provide assurances that success is possible • Success and failures of others: -‐People o▯en acquire informa▯on about their self-‐eﬃcacy for a new task or domain by observing the successes and failure of individuals similar to themselves • Success and failures of whole group: -‐people have a greater self-‐eﬃcacy when they are in a group Development of Self-‐eﬃcacy • Resilient Self-‐Eﬃcacy: -‐they learn that sustained eﬀort and perseverance are key ingredients for that success -‐develop resilient self-‐eﬃcacy Development of Self-‐eﬃcacy Successes and failures of others: • Coping model: -‐shows learners that success does’t necessarily come easily-‐ that they must work and prac▯ce to achieve success-‐ and allows them to observe the strategies the model uses to gain proﬁciency Development of Self-‐eﬃcacy Successes and failures of the group as a whole: -‐people may have greater self-‐eﬃcacy when they work in a group than when they work alone, and especially when they achieve success as a group • Collec▯ve Self-‐eﬃcacy: -‐func▯on not only of peoples percep▯ons of their own and others capabili▯es but also of their percep▯on of how eﬀec▯vely they can work together and coordinate their roles and responsibili▯es Self-‐Regula▯on • As social cogni▯ve theory has evolved over the years, it has increasingly emphasized the role of self-‐regula▯on in human behavior • Through both direct and vicarious reinforcement and punishment, growing children gradually learn which behaviors are and are not acceptable to the people around them • Eventually they develop their own ideas about ac▯ons accordingly priate and they choose their Elements of Self-‐Regula▯on • Se▯ng standards and goals • Self-‐observa▯on • Self-‐evalua▯on • Self-‐reac▯on • Self-‐reﬂec▯on Elements of Self-‐Regula▯on • Se▯ng standards and goals: -‐mature human beings tend to set standards for their own behavior, they establish criteria regarding what cons▯tutes acceptable performance -‐iden▯fy certain goals that they value and toward which they direct many of their behaviors -‐behavior of model aﬀects learners standards and goals • Self-‐observa▯on: -‐important part of self-‐regula▯on if to observe oneself in ac▯on. -‐to make progress toward important goals, people must be aware of what they are good at and what needs improvement Elements of Self-‐Regula▯on • Self-‐evalua▯on: -‐ peoples behaviors are frequently judged by others, eventually people begin to judge their own behaviors • Self-‐reac▯on: -‐as people become increasingly self-‐regula▯ng, they begin to they did good when they accomplish their goals. g themselves • Self-‐reﬂec▯on: -‐self-‐regula▯ng learners reﬂect on and cri▯cally examine their goals, past successes and failures, and beliefs about their abili▯es, and they make any adjustment to goals, behaviors, and beliefs that seem warranted Promo▯ng Self-‐Regulated Behavior • Self-‐Instruc▯on • Self-‐Monitoring • Self-‐Reinforcement • Self-‐Imposed S▯mulus Control Self-‐Instruc▯on • One eﬀec▯ve strategy is to teach learners to repeat self-‐instruc▯on that guide their behavior • Cogni▯ve modeling: -‐adult model preforms the desired task while verbalizing instruc▯ons that guide performance • Overt, external guidance: -‐the child performs the task while listening to the adult verbalize the instruc▯on • Overt self-‐guidance: -‐the child repeats the instruc▯ons aloud while performing the task • Faded, overt self-‐guidance: • Covert self-‐instruc▯on: Self-‐monitoring • Self-‐monitoring: -‐another method that can help people control their own behavior is simply to have them observe and assess their own responses just as someone else might assess those response Self-‐Reinforcement • Self-‐reinforcement: -‐giving themselves a treat or special privilege when they behave in a desired fashion and withholding reinforcement when they don’t • When students learn to reinforce themselves for their accomplishment their study habits and academic performance improve Self-‐imposed S▯mulus Control • Self-‐imposed S▯mulus Control: -‐to increase a par▯cular desired behavior, and individual might be instructed to seek out an environment in which that behavior is most like to occur. • This idea can be translated into an eﬀec▯ve means of promo▯ng self-‐regula▯on • Ex: study wants to study more then he should spend more like in the library Educa▯onal Implica▯ons of Social Cogni▯ve Theory • Students o▯en learn a great deal simply by observing others • Describe the consequences of behaviors can eﬀec▯vely increase appropriate behavior and decrease inappropriate • Modeling provides and alterna▯ve to shaping for teaching new behaviors. • Teachers, parents, and older adults must model appropriate behaviors and take care not to model inappropriate behaviors • Exposure to a variety of other models further enhances student learning • Student must believe they are capable of accomplishing school task • Teachers should help students set realis▯c expecta▯ons • Self-‐regula▯on techniques provide eﬀec▯ve methods for improving student behavior
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