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pysch 101

by: Rachel

pysch 101 01:830:101

GPA 3.6

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About this Document

These notes include what he said in class and material that is not included on the power points that are given to us.
Larry Jacobs
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology
25 ?




Popular in Psych

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:830:101 at Rutgers University taught by Larry Jacobs in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Psych in Psychology (PSYC) at Rutgers University.

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Date Created: 09/28/16
Psychology 9/19/16 Scientific method Description method: Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation describe behaviors. - Case study (or case history): o A technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles. A thorough observation and in depth description of a single individual, studied in great depth. Survey: a survey is a study of certain beliefs, attitudes or behaviors, based on people’s responses to specific questions. A method of in depth study in which researchers use interviews, questionnaires to gather info, using telephone, internet, and paper and pencil form Question: name the top 3 countries with the recorded fastest walkers in the world. - Switzerland - Germany - Japan - 10. USA Correlational studies: research method used to establish degree of relationship (correlation between 2 events or variables) Concept check - What type of correlation? o Peoples shoe size and IQ score  No correlation Experimental method - this is the only method that can identify cause-effect. It Is the most powerful tool for drawing conclusions about research. o A study in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable (independent) to test the hypothesis. While measuring at least one other variable (dependent) o Independent variable- a variable that an experimenter can manipulate. This is the cause of something. The variable controlled and manipulated by an experimenter (if I do that…) o Dependent variable- the observed result of the manipulation of the independent to tell us “that will happen” as a result of the independent variable o Experimental group- exposed to independent variable or receive treatment being given. The individuals receiving the treatment. o Control group- these individuals are not exposed to the treatment. Here we are holding all other conditions constant. o Variable- any condition or characteristics or behaviors that can be manipulated, controlled.  A variable is anything that can change. It’s from “to vary”  Ex. Scientists study happiness. Some seem happier than others. why? This is where we develop theories to the answer why o Random assignment- a selection method in which the experiment assigns subjects to either the experimental or control group using a procedure based off chance Psychology 9/21/16 Attention: - We rarely have the luxury of paying attention to any single stimulus and we simply cannot process all the information converging simultaneously on our sensory systems. - Selective attention: we can sometimes be so focused that we miss important information. Not seeing something that is plainly before your eyes most likely occurs when you attention is narrowly focused o It’s the process of focusing on a particular object in the environment for a certain period of time - At times, we can even suffer from in-attentional blindness, a failure to notice a stimulus because attention is focused elsewhere. It’s a psychological lack of attention. - We can sometimes be so focused that we miss important information. In a classical study by Simons and Chabris (1999), people counting the number of times a basketball was passed in a video completely missed the person in the gorilla suit who walked onstage, faced the camera, and pounded its chest. People who do better on multitasking tend to see the gorilla more often than those who do not - Selective attention and in-attentional blindness are vividly illustrated by a classic study in which participants were shown a film of two basketball teams. One wearing black shirts and the other wearing white and people were asked to count how many times the white team passed the basketball back and forth. Meanwhile no one saw the guy in the gorilla suit dance across the screen. Concept checks - It is said that dogs and cats can see in the dark- true or false o Answer: although these animals have much better vision in dim light than we do, there must be some light present for the rods of the eye to function. - In the daytime which predominates, the fovea or periphery of the eye? o Answer: unless you walk into a dark room, you will be using the fovea, because cones are the receptors for daytime (well-lighted) vision. Gestalt psychology - examines the human ability to perceive patterns. - Gestalt is the branch of psychology that explains how humans integrate visual information and make meaningful interpretations of our visual words. While the picture appears to be a random series of abstract black spots, it is actually a picture of a dog drinking from a stream at the base of a tree Gestalt Principles of grouping - In order to interpret what we receive through our senses, they theorize that we attempt to organize this information into certain groups. This allows us to interpret the information completely without unneeded repetition. Shape- refers to your tendency to perceive an object as retaining its same shape even though when you view it from different angles, its shape is continually changing its image on your retina. When you move a book the shape projected on your retina may change from rectangular to trapezoidal, yet your perception of the book doesn’t change. This is what Professor Jacobs said that we should for the exam, as well as the rest of the material on the power point slides; - Ames room o We see an immensely tall and a very short person but once we remove all the misleading cues we realize that they are people of similar height standing at different distances in relation to us. - the structure of the eye terms - Going to ask about dark adaptation - common disorders of vision slide and difference between them. o Example, know that  Nearsighted- elongated  Farsighted flattened - the sound stimulus- sounds waves slide - what taste buds are - the four perceptual constancies


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