Popular in Psych
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 01:830:101 at Rutgers University taught by Larry Jacobs in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Psych in Psychology (PSYC) at Rutgers University.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Psychology 9/26/16 Human development A series of distinct stages based on the type of growth and changes in each Newborns vision - As voluntary control of arms and legs develops, and babies start crawling, a fear of height develops, related to improved depth perception Newborns hearing - Playing new sounds for an infant will increase responding, and may even result in a dis-habituation Newborns learning and memory - They showed this preference on the day of their birth, suggesting that they have some memory of her voice from before birth There will be a question on FAS- fetal alcohol syndrome - If a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy, the baby is likely to be born with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) - The more alcohol a woman drinks during pregnancy, the more likely her baby is to have anomalies of the head, face, and organs. - FAS is characterized by stunted growth of the head and body, facial, cranial and ear malformations, neurological damage, learning disabilities and mental retardation. Question on maturation - The development of the brain unfolds based on genetics instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence—standing before walking, babbling before talking—this is called maturation. Concept check - Slide 12/39 Answer: Longitudinal Know Jean Piaget and views in development - Piaget founder of cognitive development theory - Behaviors is based on a schema. Schema is an organized way of interacting with objects in the world. It is an action pattern or mental structure that acquires and organizes knowledge. Schemas are biologically determined patterns in the way babies and young children behave. It is realizing that certain actions go best with certain objects linking objects with actions Assimilation and accommodation - Assimilation- a child applies a new object into an old schema. Children use assimilation to acquire new knowledge within a stage. - Accommodation- a child applies their old schema to fit a new object. When one can no longer assimilate new information, accommodation forces changes between stages. Sensorimotor stage - Piaget believed that infants respond to what they see and hear, not what they remember or imagine. As infants progress through the stage, they deserve a sense of self. At about 1 yr of age, they show signs of self- recognition. Preoperational stage - Piaget suggested that from 2 yrs old to about 6-7 years old children are in the preoperational stage—too young to perform mental operations, the child does not yet think in terms of logical operations. (child with the flask on slide 21/39) - The term operations refers to reversible mental processes, it’s the inability to take perspective of another person, or imagine another’s point of view. - Piaget concluded that preschool children are egocentric, they cannot perceive things from another’s point of view. Ex. When the 2 yr old was asked to show her picture to her mother, she held the picture facing her own eyes, believing that her mother can see it through her eyes. The concrete operational stage - Children now carry out mental operations on concrete objects. - Children in this stage are also able to transform mathematical functions. So if 4+8=12 then a transformation, 12-4=8 is also easily do able. Formal operations stage - This stage is reached just before adolescence (about age 11) - According to research some people take longer to reach formal operations, and some never do. Preoperational is the answer to concept check on slide 25/39 Sensorimotor is the answer to concept check on slide 26/39 Formal operations is the answer to concept check on slide 27/39 Concrete is the answer to concept check on slide 28/39 Vygotsky - ZPD (zone of proximal development)– children’s thinking develops through dialogues with adults - Scaffolding; example is like someone teaching a child how to ride a bike with a lot of support at first and then eventually no support. Its providing support in order for the child to eventually become independent. - Zone of proximal development Child performs with assistance of others who are more skilled He proposed the existence of a zone proximal development which is the distance between what a child can do alone and what a child can do with assistance from others - This perspective views children as social beings, influenced by the culture in which they live. Says we are influenced by both bio and social variables. - Vygotsky says children are greatly influenced by the childs social interactions within the home. He created two concepts, ZPD and Scaffolding. Erikson - Best known for his life stage theory of human development, describing his ideas about successful aging - Know table 5.4 Erikson’s stages of human development The effects of parenting style - Authoritative parents impose controls but show warmth encouragement to the child - Authoritarian parents impose control but tend to be emotionally distant from the child - Permissive parents are warm but impose few limits - Uninvolved parents are distant and do little more than provide resources Parental conflict and divorce - Should parents stay together for the children sake? The answer depends on the level of conflict. Children appear to suffer most of all, whether parents split up or stay together, when parents are constantly battling. It may also be related to prolonged exposure to conflict that often accompanies divorce The younger the child is when the divorce occurs, the milder the effects tend to be. This is what Professor Jacobs said we should know and what some questions might be on Know Three stages of development - Germinal stage- first 2 weeks - Embryonic- 2 through 8 weeks - Fetal stage- develops from week 9 until birth There will be a question on FAS- fetal alcohol syndrome Question on maturation Know the research designs for studying development (youtube each one) - Cross-sectional - Longitudinal - Sequential Know Jean Piaget and views in development
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