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PBIO 1030 Week 6 Notes

by: Abbey Marshall

PBIO 1030 Week 6 Notes PBIO 1030

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Abbey Marshall
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Clicker quizzes and exam #2
Plants and People
Dr. Thompson
Class Notes
plant, Biology, Ethnobotany, herbicide, pesticide, agriculture
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Marshall on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PBIO 1030 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Thompson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
PBIO 1030 Fall 2016  Week 6 Learning Objectives Monday, September 26, 2016 (Agriculture & Domestication) 1. Explain the importance of the Fertile Crescent in agriculture. Name the  earliest domesticated crop from that region.  Includes parts of Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel  Nile, Tigris, Euphrates Rivers floodplains  Contains the remains of plants and animals dating back 9,000 to  14,000  Evidence indicates that barley may have been the first crop  domesticated in the Near East, approximately 10,000 years 2. Explain what forms of evidence are used to determine: (a) whether farming  practices were in place during ancient times, (b) what types of foods were  being eaten and cultivated, and (c) the types of methods used in growing or  harvesting plants for food.  Jarmo in northeastern Iraq in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains: a) Charred grains of wheat and barley found in a domesticated type  already changed from wild type (for this genetic change to have  taken place, initial cultivation had to take place b)  Bones of wild animals, snail shells, acorns and pistachio nuts c)  Artifacts uncovered at the site include flint sickles and grinding  stones for harvesting and milling cereal grains as well as clay  figurines, woven baskets, and rugs 3. Name early cultivated foods from the Americas.  Squash  Corn  Chili peppers  Amaranth  Avocado  Gourds  Beans  White and sweet potatoes 4. Describe how domesticated plants differ from wild plants and what type of  selection is responsible for these differences.  Domesticated: genetically distinct from wild progenitors  Through the process natural selection, wild plants have evolved  mechanisms that ensure their survival in the environment, but  once a plant has been domesticated, traits are artificially selected to suit human needs and do not necessarily have a survival value  Example: o Wild grasses have shattering fruiting heads which will  break apart at a slight touch or breeze and scatter their  seeds over a wide area o A recessive gene is responsible for a tough spike with a  nonshattering head. It would be natural for early forager to  gather those seeds attached to the tougher spikes. When  agriculture began, the seeds most easily gathered would be  planted and so pass on the nonshattering trait 5. Define cereals and name the plant family from which they are derived.  Describe one feature that sets corn apart from other cereals.  Cereal:  is any grass (grain) cultivated for the edible components  of its grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis),  composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.   Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more  food energy worldwide than any other type of crop; they are  therefore staple crops.  Corn is… o much larger than other cereals o has a separate staminate and carpellate inflorescenes o each floret consisting of three stamens surrounded by bracts o Grains (kernels) can be of various colors, are naked, but the entire ear is tightly covered with specialized bracts known  as husks o Silks on husk is actually the style and stigma of an  individual carpellate flower Wednesday, September 28, 2016 (Sustainable agriculture) 1. Describe how Farmer Brandt uses cover crops, including some of the types of plants used, the benefits they offer and how he plants seeds after the cover  crops are finished.  Cover crops: fall plantings that blanket the ground in winter and  are allowed to rot in place come spring o Hairy vetch o Rye o Radishes o Legumes  Putting nitrogen back into soil because of the bacteria in the nodules of the plants  Cover crops have helped Brandt slash his use of synthetic  fertilizers and herbicides  Rolling contraption he drags behind his tractor to kill cover crops ahead of the spring and the shiny, fire­engineered device he uses  to drill corn and soy seeds through the dead cover crops directly  into the soil 2. Describe the effect of tilling on soil. Explain whether genetically engineered  crops reduce tilling.  Brandt never tills his soil  Tilling: ripping the soil up with steel blades create a nice, clean,  weed­free bed for seeds, but it also disturbs soil microbiota and  leaves dirt vulnerable to erosion  Genetically engineered plants for herbicide resistance, which has  allowed farmers to use chemicals instead of the plow to control  weeds 3. Compare Brandt’s soil quality with the neighbor’s.   Neighbor’s soil is moist, muddy crust and right underneath is dry 4. Explain how modern farming practices such as monocultures and chemicals  impact our water and soil and why more sustainable methods are not being  adopted by many farmers.  Increases loads of pesticides and titanic annual additions of  synthetic and mined fertilizers, much of which ends up fouling  drinking water and feeding algae­smothered aquatic dead zones  from Lake Erie to the Gulf of Mexico Friday, September 30, 2016 1. Define transgenic and explain how bacteria are used to create transgenic  plants.  Transgenic: organisms that contain a “foreign” gene in each of  their cells  DNA  RNA  Protein = trait transferring because they all have  the same genetic code (ATCG), genes must be expressed  Genetic Engineering: o Restriction enzymes found in bacteria are useful to cut out  genes of interest o We take DNA from bacteria (using restriction enzymes) o Take the cell with the gene and put it into the plant cell for  the plant to reproduce, so the genetic information is in all of its cells 2. Explain the purpose of herbicide resistance in crop plants and how it has been used in commercial crops. Describe the controversy behind the use of  genetically engineered alfalfa.  Simplifies the application of one broad­spectrum herbicide  throughout the growing season because the resistant crop plants  are not threatened by the chemicals  Bacterial gene that confers resistance to the herbicide glyphosate  has been introduced into various crop plants  Concern has been expressed about the approval of genetically  engineered alfalfa   Poses a special environmental risk   spread of herbicide resistance to non­GM alfalfa (because it is  pollinated by honeybees) o This would present major problems for the organic dairy  industry by possible contaminating the forage for organic  dairy cows 3. Explain the complications with adopting glyphosate­resistant (genetically  engineered) wheat.  Some countries objected so strongly that they would not purchase any wheat from any country that grows biotech wheat because of  the chance that grain mixing might occur  The US is the world’s largest wheat exporter  Food manufacturers protests for fear that they would have to  create separate production facilities for goods  Some scientists were also concerned about the effects on future  crops 4. Describe the purpose of Bt crops. Predict what effects the production of Bt  might have on plant growth, based on your previous knowledge of secondary  metabolites.   Bacillus thurigiensis (BT): common soil bacterium that is well  known for its ability to produce proteins with insecticidal  properties  There are over 400 Bt preparations registered in the US for  control of various insect pests  Benefits: o Toxins are continuously produced and persist for some time o Fewer chemical insecticides are needed o Greater range of insect pests is controlled o Not harmful to mammals, birds, amphibians, or reptiles 5. Explain the controversies surrounding Bt corn use regarding environmental  and health issues.   Environmental: o Monarch butterfly larvae feed on milkweed leaves, found  in cornfields o Larvae who ate on Bt milkweed developed more slowly  and had a much higher mortality rate.  Health: o Report finding StarLink corn approved for animal  consumption, but not human consumption o Bt toxin in StarLink corn more resistant to digestion and  heat than other Bt toxins o VERY LITTLE to NO evidence of effects on human health 6. Distinguish between herbicide and pesticide resistance.   Herbicide: used to kill weeds and undesirable plants  Pesticide: used to kill pests


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