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PSYC 100, Week 3 Notes

by: Madilynne Harbauer

PSYC 100, Week 3 Notes PSYC 100

Madilynne Harbauer


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About this Document

These notes cover the subject of learning.
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Kimberly Vanderbilt
Class Notes
introductiontopsychology, learning, Psychology, introcourse
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madilynne Harbauer on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 100 at California State University - San Marcos taught by Dr. Kimberly Vanderbilt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at California State University - San Marcos.

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Date Created: 09/28/16
9/12/16 Announcements: - HPP deadline to register: Sept 26th - Quiz 3 on Friday • On material covered this week (ch. 7) - HW 1 due a week from Friday (on 9/23) It’s on the syllabus Learning: Chapter 7 Learning terminology: - Learning:Achange in thought or behavior resulting from experience. - Stimulis: anything in the enviornment to which an organism might react - Response: any behavior resulting from a stimulus Learning ex: touching a pan that is hot, then realizing that you shouldn't touch it Stimulis ex: the lights turning on, or a cute person walking by - Habituation: decrease in reaction to a repeated stimulis • Habituation is the simplest form of learning Ex: If your professor would turn the lights off everyday without warning, then you’d get used to it and eventually have less of a response • All it requires is for you to realize that this happened before Behaviorism - Early field of psychology that focused only on observables • Usually changes in behavior - Treated the mind as a “black box” • “If I can’t observe it, I don't care about it” - Alot of the theories fraud has were about the observable things - They are about distinct observables because they can measure Classical Conditioning - Anew stimulis begins to elicit the same response as another stimulis, when they occur together - Elicits an automatic response (reflex) • Ex: sneezing - Ivan Pavlov discovered classical condition • He is not a psychologist, he was a physiologist (interested in digestion), he did tests primarily with dogs - He discovered classical conditioning by accident • Before the food got to the dog he salivated because the guy walked in with food • He then connected the food to the bell and got the dogs to salivate by a bell • Two things get paired together, they both elicit the same reaction - Unconditioned stimulis (UCS) = Food (it does the response automatically; it is untouched) • No learning needed - Unconditional response (UCR) = Salivate to food (makes you salivate automatically to help with digestion - Conditioned stimulis (CS) = bell (you create the response with the UCS) - Conditioned response (CR) = Salivate to bell (new stimulus instead of the old) - Pairing: Learning occurs when the CS is paired reliably with the UCS • The CS must predict the UCS for learning to occur - Extinction: disappearance of the CR, when CS is no longer paired with UCS • Extinction does not equal forgetting • They didn't forget, but they stopped caring about it - Spontaneous recovery: the return of the CR after a delay • They sometimes remember the association even after extinction • Easier to remember than before - Stimulis generalization: when stimuli similar to the CS elicit a CR - Stimulis discrimination: when stimuli similar to the CS do not elicit a CR • You can train animals to of these different things - BabyAlbert experiment- John Watson • Trained a baby to fear things that it wouldn't normally fear Also brought in similar things to see if it would elicit the same response • • Fear doesn't exist naturally • Stimulis generalization was used on babyAlbert Why do I care? 1. Advertising and higher order conditioning - Advertising conditions consumers to associate a product with positive feelings • Humor, sex appeal, celebrities, etc. 2. Drug reactions and overdose - Our bodies buildup a conditioned tolerance to drugs (to stop you from dying) - Without this reaction many overdose - The place you are doing drugs is the CR • If you're in a different place, you have a different tolerance Wednesday, September 14, 2016 Learning (continued) Announcements: - HW 1 due a week from Friday (on 9/23) - Directions will be posed on cougar courses 1. Watch video(s) posted online 2.Answer questions on the videos & class (2 pages minimum and 3 pages maximum) 3. Turn in online via TurnitinAND bring a copy to section • Formatting and proofreading required (APAformat) • If you have questions, come to office hours! Learning: Operant conditioning - Acquiring behaviors as a result of the outcome or consequence of those behaviors • Behavior results from reward and punishment • You either do it more or less as a result Ex: got a good grade on an exam, parents take you out for ice cream, then you are more likely to try and get better grades because of the reward - Different from classical conditioning! • Organism chooses to perform a behavior • Rewards are dependent on organism response • Learning involves changing in voluntary behavior (not reflexes) - Rewards are contingent on behavior Thorndite’s Law of Effect: If a response in the presence of a stimulus, is followed by a satisfying state of affairs, the bond between stimulus and response will be strengthened • Do something —> positive outcome —> you’ll do that thing more • Do something —> negative outcome —> you'll do that thing less - Operant learning involves an association between a stimulus and a response, with a reward stamping in this connection - B.F. Skinner: famous behaviorist 1 Wednesday, September 14, 2016 - Developed a highly efficient conditioning chamber called the “Skinner Box” Reinforcement and punishment: • There are lots of different types • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement • Positive punishment • Negative punishment - Positive means adding something to the environment (+) - Negative means removing something from the environment (-) - Reinforcement increasing the behavior - Punishment decreasing the behavior - Positive reinforcement: pleasant stimulus is given to increase behavior Ex: Getting money for chores; more likely to do chores - Negative reinforcement: unpleasant stimulus is removed to increase a behavior Ex: Headache so you take medication; its works so you're more likely to take the medication again or your alarm is annoying so you get up and turn it off - Positive punishment: unpleasant stimulus is given to decrease a behavior Ex: If your parents spanked you, then you would be less likely to do it again - Negative punishment: pleasant stimulus is removed to decrease a behavior Ex: You do bad in school —> parents take away your phone —> more likely to do well in school • Grounding is negative punishment and so is prison - Your rights are removed, to decrease the likely hood that you'll break the rules again - Partial reinforcement: reinforcing behaviors occasionally, rather than always • Partial reinforcement is harder to extinguish Ex: Slot machines, you have to do it multiple times for a reward Schedules of partial reinforcement: - Fixed ratio 2 Wednesday, September 14, 2016 - Fixed interval - Variable ratio - Variable interval • Fixed:After a set amount (ex: “it takes 5”) • Variable: Constantly changing (it will happen after a while) • Ratio: Number of responses • Interval: Varying amount of time - Fixed ratio: reinforcement after a fixed number of responses Ex:Acertain amount of money to a vending machine to get a soda - Fixed interval: reinforcement after a fixed amount of time Ex:After 10 minutes cookies will be ready, even if you were to check at 5 minutes or 7 minutes - Variable ratio: reinforcement after a varying number of responses • The most addicting Ex:Aslot machine, after a while it’s going to play out - Variable interval: reinforcement after a varying amount of time Ex: Checking your phone to see if your friend texted back you never know how long it’s going to be 3


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