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Colonization and The American Revolution

by: Corri Chanel Oliver

Colonization and The American Revolution History 201

Marketplace > The University of Tennessee - Martin > History > History 201 > Colonization and The American Revolution
Corri Chanel Oliver

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These notes cover the beginning of colonization and go all the way through to the American Revolution.
History of United States through 1877
Renee LaFleur
Class Notes
history, colonization, american revolution




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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Corri Chanel Oliver on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 201 at The University of Tennessee - Martin taught by Renee LaFleur in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see History of United States through 1877 in History at The University of Tennessee - Martin.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
A. French Efforts a. Wealth and Conversion b. Fur Trade B. Dutch Efforts a. Economics b. Paid Wages c. New York d. No Loyalty C. English Efforts a. Spanish Armada D. The Colonization of North America a. Different from Spain and France i. Joint Stock Companies 1. Colony is a company 2. Private ventures b. Reasons for migration i. Profit ii. Piety iii. Wealth of natural resources E. The First Round of Settlement a. Settling the Chesapeake i. Entrepreneurs in Virginia 1. Joint Stock Company 2. Jamestown a. 1607 b. 104 Men and Boys c. Worst Place to Settle d. Chosen for strategic reasons 3. Powhatan Confederacy a. 14000 People b. Relationship varied 4. Captain John Smith a. Seized control of the colony b. If you want to eat you have to work 5. Tobacco, Green Gold, Cash Crop a. Novelty 6. Reforms of 1618-1619 a. Headright system- land given to any adult male. More land given based on number of dependents. 7. Colonists 8. Indentured Servants- work for person who paid their way to the colony 9. Bacon’s Rebellion 1676 a. Servants v Landowners b. Indentured servants were attacked the most. c. Governor wanted to maintain a good relationship in order to maintain the fur trade. d. Bacon orders the indentured servants to work for their freedom. e. Bacon sets fire to Jamestown ii. Maryland 1. Troubled catholic experiment 2. Founded by Baltimore as a refuge for Catholics b. Settling New England i. Plymouth 1. Was not supposed to happen 2. Pilgrims were supposed to settle at Jamestown, but their ship was taken off course and they were tired from traveling 3. Separatists- Wanted a church totally separate from the church of England/ Catholic Influences 4. Mayflower Compact- Heads of households had a say in the governance of the colony a. First evidence of self-governance ii. Massachusetts Bay- “The Great Migration” 1. Puritans believed they could purify the church of England. a. Created a pure church in the colonies as an example for England. 2. John Winthrop- a model of Christian Charity a. The purpose of the colonies is the relationship with God. 3. City Upon the Hill- Beacons of God’s community for everyone to see a. Covenant- build the model Christian community for salvation. b. Everyone has to do their part to receive salvation c. One=all iii. Rhode Island 1. Roger Williams- Separatist who criticized the king. a. Believed that land belonged to Native Americans b. Criticized the combination of church and state c. Separation of church and state d. Leaves Massachusetts Bay and settles in Rhode Island after his exile. 2. Anne Hutchison a. Banished because she does not believe in salvation and the means of salvation. b. Accused ministers of teaching salvation by acts of good work. c. She was accused of teaching men which she was not supposed to do. iv. Connecticut- Puritans that outgrew Massachusetts Bay v. New Hampshire and Maine c. Indians in New England i. White –Indian Relations 1. Sometimes good and sometimes very bad. 2. Pequot War 1636 a. Accused by settlers of killing one of the Puritans b. Village is set on fire and they are shot as they try to escape. c. Pequot are sold into slavery in Bermuda. 3. King Phillip’s War a. Native Americans were offended by conversion attempts of the Puritans b. Kidnapping was popular c. They kidnapped people to replace lost Indians due to war and also used them as bargaining power. d. Cultural Diversity: The Middle Colonies- Culturally and religiously diverse i. New York 1. New Netherlands a. New York was originally named New Amsterdam b. People were paid wages so anyone could live and work there. c. Complete religious freedom. d. When the English come, the people surrender. e. Land given to the Duke of York. f. Religious Tolerance g. Local Government 2. Iroquois League a. Defense against colonial encroachment b. Used for trade c. Able to negotiate with the English and French d. French and English overtake the Iroquois League. ii. New Jersey 1. Duke of York gives land to two friends iii. Quakers in America: Pennsylvania 1. All humans equal in the eyes of God 2. Questioned royal hierarchy 3. Refused to dress like aristocracy (Quaker Style Clothing) 4. William Penn negotiates Pennsylvania for the Quakers 1681 5. First Negotiated with Native American for land 6. Religious Freedom 7. No taxation without representation 8. Due process 9. Tolerance and good relationships with Native Americans e. The Southern Colonies i. Planting the Carolinas 1. The Carolinas a. Aristocracy b. Land offers a title c. Self Governance d. Power came from land ownership e. Families came from Barbados increasing the population f. Large amounts of African slavery 2. Southern Indians and Trade a. Most metal came from England b. Native Americans depended on Europeans c. A lot of tension among Native Americans d. South Carolina established before North Carolina ii. Founding of Georgia 1. Fresh start 2. Oglethorpe- Humanitarian effort 3. Location meant to be a buffer between South Carolina and Florida which was controlled by the Spanish 4. Slavery was forbidden 5. Rum was not allowed. Rum trade was outlawed. 6. Hard time getting people to settle. 7. 1750- Slavery accepted 8. 1754- Rum trade accepted f. Slavery in the Colonies i. First African slaves in 1619 ii. Fluid for the first 100 years iii. Treated more like indentured servants iv. Babies were not automatically slaves v. 1700s law says that the baby follows the condition of the mother vi. Slaves and former slaves could not own property vii. A lot of slaves came from the Caribbean. viii. Brazil had a large number of African slaves ix. Triangular trade between Africa, the Caribbean, and North America. 1. The middle passage- 1/6 will die en route because of ship conditions. Revolts were common. All colonies had slaves g. Thriving Colonies and Fragmentation i. Significant wealth and development ii. The crown is not asserting authority iii. Greater ability to own land and self-govern New England or Massachusetts Bay Chesapeake Bay or Virginia 1. Sources of Stability: The Family in New England a. Migrated as entire families. b. Family unit makes up all communities. c. Established churches and schools d. Tradition and a New Social Order i. High population growth ii. Good and healthy place to live iii. Even female to male ratio iv. Life expectancy for a man in 70 years v. Multigenerational families vi. Higher birth rates because marriage occurred at younger ages. vii. Healthiest time to have a baby is the early 20s e. Commonwealth of Families i. Foundation of everything. ii. Men brought land, Women brought dowery iii. Labor was not divided by gender. Sometimes is was all hands on deck. Families worked together as a whole. iv. Father represents the family v. Education was a family responsibility vi. High literacy rate for men and women. Literacy was a part of religion. vii. Women could read but not write. f. Women’s lives in New England i. Dictated by the traditions of family ii. Women could run the business as deputy husband if need be. iii. Gender shift in church membership. Women were “more Godly” due to the life threatening moments of child birth. iv. Coverture- a woman’s legal identity is covered by her husband. No separate legal identity. v. Economy- farming (livestock) was important. 1. Based on the ocean 2. A lot of fishing and ship building. 3. Sea trade was very important vi. Rank and Status in New England 1. Middle Class 2. Leadership comes from the people themselves 3. Status could change easily 4. Most people were independent workers. vii. Terror of Witchcraft 1. Teenage servants start accusing people of witchcraft 2. Most people were older women with no male relatives 3. Signs through dreams, hallucinations, and visions used as evidence during trials. 4. Difficult to prove innocence 5. 19 people hanged, 1 Pressed to death 6. Ministers intervened to stop spectral evidence in 1692 2. The Planter’s World a. Family Life in a Heinous Environment i. Most migrants were single men ii. 6 men to 1 woman iii. High mortality rates iv. Life expectancy of men is 45 years v. Most indentured servants died in a year vi. ¼ of children die before the age of two vii. The population could have died out several times viii. Women won’t start having children until later in life. ix. If a woman becomes pregnant during servitude, her service would be extended. x. Well blended families xi. Marriages usually lasted 7 years, 1/3 or marriages lasted a decade xii. Loss of grandparents=loss of knowledge b. Rank and Status in Plantation Society i. Staple crops- tobacco(Virginia) ii. Planters then freedmen then indentured servants iii. Status was stagnant. iv. No schooling 3. Race and Freedom in British America a. Roots of Slavery i. Majority in southern colonies ii. Slaves needed for New England economy iii. Religion is justification for slavery. Slavery was supposed to convert Africans to Christianity. iv. Slavery became permanent and hereditary v. Shift from religious explanation to natural inferiority. vi. Slavery is necessary for economic prosperity b. Constructing African American Identities i. New England had a smaller percentage of slaves. It was isolating. ii. In the south, slaves are the majority of the population. Slaves developed relationships with each other. iii. Blend African traditions with English traditions and Christianity. iv. Most slave resistance was smaller than rebellion v. Stono Uprising 1. 150 slaves arm themselves and kill several planters and attempted to escape Florida. They were caught. vi. The more rebellion, the stricter the laws. c. Ethnic Cultures of the Backcountry – Frontier becomes ethnically diverse i. Scotts Irish Flee English Oppression 1. Presbyterian 2. Settled in Pennsylvania 3. English were happy to have them there as a buffer between Native Americans and themselves. ii. Germans search for a better life 1. Looking for land and opportunity. 2. Located in the western parts of the colonies. 4. Head and Heart a. Provincial Cities i. Ideas develop ii. New England- Boston b. Enlightenment- movement of ideas; secular cultural i. How do we know what we know ii. Reason and rational thought iii. Deism- God creates the world and its laws 1. People interpret the laws 2. No constant interaction with God iv. Benjamin Franklin- lightning rods, bifocals, etc 1. Science, music, philosophy 2. Importance of thinking for oneself 5. Revival- The Appeal of Evangelical Religion a. The Great Awakening- religious movement i. Congregationalists- more technical than applicable ii. Jonathan Edwards 1. “Sinners in the hands of an angry God” a. Totally dependent on God for salvation b. God’s grace allows them to be saved c. Rebirth d. Evangelical- Need for a continual conversion experience iii. George Whitefield 1. Travelled to hold revivals 2. Stage actor- theatrical performance 3. Emotional and moving experience iv. New Lights- people who embraced the Great Awakening 1. Separation of church and state 2. Ministers are not as important a. Questions status and authority 3. Connection among colonies 4. Princeton, Dartmouth, Brown, Columbia 1. Commercial Blueprint for the Empire a. Economic competition i. Mercantilism- limited amount of resources and wealth b. Controlling the Marketplace i. Raw Materials from the colonies to produce goods in England ii. Navigation Act of 1660- restrictions on economics applied to all colonies 1. No ship could trade unless it was built in England or the Americas and the crew had to be mostly English 2. Spurs the ship building industry 3. Certain products could only go from the colonies directly to England then out to where it needed to go 2. The Glorious Revolution in the Colonies a. The Dominion of New England i. King James II ii. Massachusetts Bay colonies are dissolved and made into royal colonies 1. All New England colonies plus New York and New Jersey 2. Sir Edmond Andrews- Governor iii. Recession in New England iv. Extreme application of the Navigation Act v. Glorious Revolution- Movement in England that overthrows King James II and installs William and Mary vi. Colonists overthrow Andrews and get the colonies back. However, the governors are chosen by the king. b. New Political Cultures i. English constitution ii. Influence of John Locke 1. Natural rights to life, liberty, and property. 2. Colonists believe they have a right to overthrow the government and create their own c. Salutary Neglect- ease of the Navigation Act. Return to local assemblies and desire for representation. d. Representatives of the People i. Culture of participation ii. Elected representatives have an obligation to serve the needs of the people- civic virtue iii. More people can vote in the colonies than England 3. Fighting Britain’s Wars in America a. European ambitions in America i. King William’s War ii. Queen Anne’s War iii. Growing Suspicions b. Expanding conflict i. King George’s War (1743-1748) 1. Lang given back to France 2. Colonists felt unvalued ii. French strengthen position c. Appeals for intercolonial cooperation i. Albany plan of union- United government 1. Representative from every colony 2. Not carried out ii. Continued Threats from France d. Seven Years or French and Indian War i. International ii. Goal is to end fighting with France and remove the French Threat iii. Treaty of Paris 1763 1. Removes France from North America completely iv. Only Spain and England occupy America at this point e. Imperial Patriotism 4. Character of colonial society 1760s a. Breakdown of political trust- who will pay for the war i. King George III- Poor administration ii. Growing Gap: Parliamentary sovereignty 1. Parliament dictates policy 2. 3 Months to communicate 3. Difference in colonist and parliament belief in government b. No Taxation without Representation i. Power of assemblies ii. Virtua representation- Parliament represents all British citizens iii. Actual representation- The person that represents you should be like you, come from the colonies c. Appeal to public/civic virtue- Protect liberties 5. The Army as Provocation: Eroding the bonds of empire a. Conflict over Indian land: Proclamation if 1763 i. Pontiac’s Rebellion b. Paying off national debt i. Colonists pay more taxes to pay off the war ii. Colonists disagree because they have sacrificed enough 1. Revenue Act of 1764, Sugar Act a. Decreases taxes on molasses b. Reducing taxes would stop them from buying sugar on the black market c. Mobilizing the People: Stamp Act, 1765 i. Tax on paper printed items ii. Stamp act congress- delegates from 9 of the 13 colonies 1. Sons of Liberty 2. Daughters of Liberty a. Successful boycott of British produced goods d. Conciliation and Coercion i. Declaratory Act, 1766 1. Parliament is supreme in all legal matters e. A foolish boast: Tea and Sovereignty i. Townshend Acts, 1767 1. Imports 2. Colonists refuse to collect taxes 3. Another boycott on British goods 4. Boston voted to deny the acts a. Governor disbands the house of representatives in Massachusetts f. Creating Patriotic Martyrs i. Move military into Boston Commons ii. Colonists became suspicious iii. Tension between colonist and military iv. Patriots- stir ideas of suspicion v. Boston Massacre, 1770 1. 5 Americans killed 2. British shoot colonists 3. Described as an attempt of the British government vi. Troops quickly removed vii. Repeal of the Townshend Acts g. Collapse of the Old Imperial Order 1770-1773 i. Not a lot of attempts to collect taxes ii. Samuel Adams- kept issue alive iii. Committees of Correspondence- Share info between Boston and surrounding towns iv. Calm doesn’t last h. The Final Provocation: Boston Tea Party i. Tea Act- decreases tax on tea from Britain (East India Company) ii. Colonists had been buying elsewhere iii. Hoping to increase demand for tea iv. Philadelphia and New York turned away ships with tea v. Boston attempts the same but fails vi. Ship sits in harbor for days vii. December 1773- 340 chests of tea thrown overboard viii. Intolerable Acts 1. Closes port of Boston 2. Shuts down entire town 3. Huge economic hit 4. Restructure of Massachusetts government 5. Any British official would be tried in Britain not the colonies 6. Authorized quartering of troops 6. Decision for Independence a. Continental Congress i. Continental association of 1774 1. Colony wide boycott of British goods 2. Loyalists don’t want to ruin relationship with Great Britain 3. Boycotts became coerced 4. Organized militia b. Shots heard around the world i. Captured leaders and armory (General Gage) ii. Boy heard plans and told the sons of liberty iii. Paul Revere warns them in advance iv. Militia in Lexington stand their ground v. First shots of the American revolution 1. 8 Americans die c. Beginning the World Over Again i. Congress becomes revolutionary government ii. May 1775- Formal Military headed by George Washington iii. Prohibitory Act- December 1775 1. Navy creates blockade around the colonies 2. German mercenaries fight on behalf of the British 3. Nobody is interested in compromise iv. Thomas Paine “Common Sense” 1. When the government doesn’t protect it’s people, the people have a right to revolt 2. Someone has to protect natural rights 3. Power to start a new government v. 1776- Declaration of Independence 1. Separate and create an independent republic 1. Choosing Sides a. Indians i. Neutral ii. No cohesive response iii. Iroquois Nation destroyed b. Nova Scotia and the Caribbean i. Great Britain c. Patriots i. Active revolutionaries. 1/3-2/5 of the population d. Loyalists i. Loyal to Great Britain ii. Better relationship with England iii. Dependent on British Trade e. Neutrals i. Passivists, opportunists f. Slavery and the Revolution i. Depended on location ii. Free blacks supported the cause iii. Southerners were afraid of Chaos iv. Fear of slave uprising v. Patriots protected slaveholders vi. British offered slaves the freedom to fight. 2. Fighting for Independence a. 3 Elements that neutralized Britain’s advantages i. Logistics- had ship men and supplies to fight and communication was unreliable ii. America was too big to be conquered in a traditional sense. iii. Lack of appreciation- Never appreciated America’s commitment to the cause b. French Alliance i. Battles of Saratoga, 1777 1. 5800 British troops surrendered 2. Convinced the French to support c. Final Campaign i. Battle of Yorktown, 1781 3. Wining the Peace a. Treaty of Paris, 1783 b. British have fishing rights c. Americans pay back debt d. Britain removes all troops e. Colonies can now create a government 4. A New Political Culture a. Republican Ideology i. Government run by the people ii. Commitment to liberty and natural rights iii. Liberty- Power disbursed among as many people as possible iv. Order- Power leads to chaos. Need centralized power to maintain order 5. Living in the Shadow of the Revolution a. Social and Political Reform i. Expanding voting rights 1. Property ii. Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom 1786 1. Separation of church and state b. African Americans i. Denied voting rights, education, and participation ii. Free but not equal in the North iii. Incentive for slavery is too strong in the south c. Republican Motherhood i. Success only if everyone believed in civic virtue ii. Mothers taught children civic virtue iii. Creation of schools for women iv. Small significant shift in the view of women d. Postponing full liberty i. Conversations have been started but not fully achieved 6. The States: Putting Republicanism into Practice a. Natural rights and the State Constitution i. More power in the hands of the legislature instead of the governor b. Power to the People i. Constitution written by John Adams ii. People created constitution 7. Attempt at New National Government a. Articles of Confederation i. Very loose central government ii. One congress 1. Each state gets one vote iii. No power to tax iv. Only gets money by asking from states v. Liberty vi. Decentralized power


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