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BIO 101 Notes 9/26-9/30

by: Emma Benson

BIO 101 Notes 9/26-9/30 BIO 101

Marketplace > Murray State University > Biology > BIO 101 > BIO 101 Notes 9 26 9 30
Emma Benson
GPA 4.0
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These are the class notes covering photosynthesis and mitosis.
Biology Concepts
Dr. Oliver Beckers
Class Notes
bio101, Mitosis, Photosynthesis




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Benson on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 101 at Murray State University taught by Dr. Oliver Beckers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Biology Concepts in Biology at Murray State University.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Key: - Definition -Important Term -Process/Reaction -Key Concept BIO 101 Notes 9/26-9/30 Why Should We CareAbout Global Warming? • Ice melts → water levels rise → flooding of coastal regions ◦ melting incredibly fast all over the planet’s surface in the recent past • hurricanes more severe • redistribution of precipitation: torrential rains and droughts • species extinction • higher incidence of some vector borne diseases: spread, longer seasons • spread of pests, e.g. mountain pine beetle • oceans get more acidic → coral bleaching • worst case scenario, warming goes up by 4 degrees/year Photosynthesis • photosynthesis: process that uses light energy from sun to convert CO2 and water into sugar (glucose) and O2 ◦ plants produce their own “food” for cellular respiration • plants, algae, and some bacteria ◦ 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy → C6H12O6 + O6 (reaction) ◦ (opposite of cellular respiration) • chloroplasts ◦ have stroma: thick fluid in cholorplasts ◦ thylakoids: disk like membranous structures; stacked in piles → grana • cholorphyll ◦ covers surface of thylakoid membranes (pigment) ◦ absorbs light energy from the sun ▪ short wavelength + long wavelength (absorbs blue + red) ◦ best wavelengths for PS: blue and red, green reflected • process of photosynthesis • 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy → → C6H12O6 + 6O2 ◦ two steps: ◦ light reaction (in thylakoid) ◦ Calvin cycle (in stroma) Light Reaction • Sunlight excites electrons of chlorophyll • energized electrons passed along electron transport chain (proteins) • proteins of the chain use energy of electron to pump H+ into the thylakoid → protein gradient • protons leave thylakoid through ATP synthase: makesATP • on outside of thylakoid: electrons and H+ accepted by NADP → NADPH • water is split to provide electrons for chlorophyll ◦ O2 a waste product *exciting electron = raising energy level of electron Similarities/Differences Between Light Reactions + Oxidative Phosphorylation: -Shared • electron transport chain • H+ gradient: to generateATP inside double-membrane organelle -Opposite • H2O split vs. assembled • H+ gradient in different direction • NADPH moves electrons to Calvin Cycle (uses CO2) ◦ in stroma ◦ usesATP + NADPH to assemble glucose from CO2 ◦ does not use light • sugar can be stored and broken down when needed Can Photosynthesis Slow Down Climate Change? • Yes and no ◦ not fast enough rate • Deforestation • rising temperatures slow photosynthesis ◦ pores close to keep water in but keeps CO2 out Chapter 6: Mitosis, Meiosis and Cancer • 1.6 million cases of cancer in US • approximately 38.6% will be diagnosed with cancer • most common: breast, lung, prostate, colon, bladder, skin, thyroid, kidney, pancreatic, leukemia What is Cancer? • Result of a cell performing mitosis when it should not • unregulated cell division results in pileup of functionless cells → tumors ◦ benign → does not affect surroundings ◦ malignant → attacks area around tumor ◦ metastic → breaks off and goes to other areas of the body • Cancer cells can travel through lymph and blood systems ◦ in a biopsy, the lymph nodes will be checked for cancer cells ◦ if found, lymph nodes farther from the tumor will also be examined Risk Factors • conditions/behaviors that increase likelihood of developing a disease: ◦ a) inherited cancer risk by mutated genes that are passed on from parents ◦ b) environmental exposure: ▪ carcinogens→ substances that are correlated with the development of cancer (e.g. Abestos, chromium, Radon, wood and leather dust, etc) ▪ cigarettes and alcohol (synergistic effect) ◦ other risk factors ▪ tobacco use ▪ excessive alcohol consumption ▪ high fat, low fiber diet ▪ lack of exercise ▪ obesity Mitosis • mitosis: cells divide into genetically identical daughter cells ◦ typically controlled, if not, cancer • cells divide for organism to grow, heal, and sometimes reproduce (e.g. bateria, amoeba) DNAReplication • DNAreplication: copying DNAto pass on one copy to identical daughter cell • during replication ◦ 1) DNAis split in half between strands (by enzyme helicase) ◦ 2) second half of strand filled in on each side → free nucleotides bind to DNA strandA-T G-C ◦ 3) DNApolymerase moves along DNAstrand connecting adjacent nucleotides to assemble daughter strand ▪ semiconservative replication ▪ each newly-built double strand composed of one parent strand and one newly- synthesized daughter strand • one strand smoothly assembled (continuous strand) and assembled in broken sections on other strand (lagging strand) • chromosome: DNAthat is wrapped around proteins and carries genes ◦ sister chromatids (copies for cell division) attached at centromere → identical genetic information ◦ if polymerase makes a mistake in copying → mutation: change of DNAin a particular gene ◦ each human cell has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs of homologous chromosomes) ◦ diploid: two copies of each chromosome (i.e. pair) ▪ one from mother, one from father ▪ same genes, different versions ◦ different versions of genes → alleles


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