Chapter 6: Chemical Nomenclature
Chapter 6: Chemical Nomenclature Chem 1110
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanna Gibbs on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1110 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Dalbey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
Reviews for Chapter 6: Chemical Nomenclature
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Date Created: 09/28/16
Lecture 9/6 Dr. Ross Dalbey Chemistry 1110 Chapter 6: Chemical Nomenclature I. Nomenclature: system of naming chemicals II. Most elements exist in nature in single atom units A. 7 elements exist as diatomic molecules 1. “H 2ve N o2F e2r O f 2 c2 Col d 2eer ” 2 a) H 2 b) N 2 c) F 2 d) O 2 e) I2 f) Cl 2 g) Br 2 III. Binary Molecular Compounds: contain 2 different elements, both must be a nonmetal/metalloid A. Naming binary molecular compounds 1. The name of a binary molecular compound has 2 words. 2. First word – name of the element first appearing in the chemical formula, including a prefix to indicate the # of atoms of that elements in the molecule. 3. Second word – name of the element appearing second in the formula, changed to end in –ide, including a prefix to indicate the # of atoms in the molecule. B. We already know how to name some binary compounds 1. Ex. Carbon dioxide (CO ) 2 2. Sometimes, it is preferred to use common names a) Water = H O 2 b) Ammonia = NH 3 c) Ammonium = NH 4 3. Rules a) Do not use mono- for the first element b) If you have two vowels, you drop the prefix vowel a. Ex. Pentaoxide pentoxide IV. Monoatomic Ions: ion formed from a single atom A. Ion: charged particle formed due to the loss or gain of electrons 1. Cation: positively charged ion 2. Anion: negatively charged ion B. Naming monoatomic ions/Writing the formula Lecture 9/6 Dr. Ross Dalbey Chemistry 1110 1. Name a) Name of element-ide, followed by the word “ion” a. Ex. Nitride ion (N ) 2. Formula a) Elemental symbol, followed by electrical charge (written in superscript) a. If the charge is 1-, omit the number i. Ex. F C. Several metals can form ions of varying charge D. These charges cannot be inferred from the location on the periodic table, therefore the charges MUST be indicated in the name of the ion (use a roman numeral) 1. Ex. Copper (II) Sulfide E. Polyatomic ion: ion composed of multiple atoms a) Ex. NH 4 2. Ionic compound: neutral compound composed of cations and anions a) Ex. NaCl b) Formula Unit: hypothetical unit particle represented by the formula of an ionic compound c) Writing the formula for ionic compounds a. Write the formula of the cation and the formula of the anion b. Balance the charges. Decide what the fewest # of ions is that makes the compound electrically neutral c. Write the formula, cation then anion, each with subscripts as needed for charge balance i. If there is only one ion no subscript ii. If there are multiple polyatomic ions, use parentheses and place subscript after parenthesis 1. Ex. Mg(OH) 2 Lecture 9/6 Dr. Ross Dalbey Chemistry 1110 d. Practice + - i. Potassium + bromine = K + Br KBr ii. Calcium + fluorine = Ca 2++ F CaF 2 2+ 2- iii. Strontium + oxygen = Sn + O SnO d) When naming ionic compounds, second nonmetal always ends in –ide + V. Acids: substance that has an H ion (a proton) that can be removed by a water molecule A. HCl + H O2 Cl + H O 3 + 1. Hydrochloric acid is found in the stomach causes heartburn B. H 2 + H O2 HS + H O 3 + C. Oxoacid: an acid with at least one proton that can be removed by water, plus oxygen & at least one other type of atom D. Memorize these acids 1. Carbonic H C2 3 2. Nitric HNO 3 3. Phosphoric H PO 3 4 4. Sulfuric H2SO 4 5. Chloric HClO 3 E. Family of acids (7A) 1. Chloric HClO 3 2. Fluoric HFO 3 3. Bromic HBrO 3 4. Iodic HIO 3 F. 6A Acids 1. Sulfuric H SO 2 4 2. Selenic H 2eO 4 3. Telluric H2TeO 4 G. 5A Acids 1. Phosphoric H P3 4 2. Arsenic H 3sO 4 # of Oxygen Example Acid Prefix Acid Suffix Atoms compared with an –ic acid Same HClO 3 chloric None -ic acid One more HClO , perchloric Per- -ic 4 acid One fewer HClO 2 chlorous None -ous acid Two fewer HClO, Hypo- -ous hypochlorous acid No oxygen HCl, hydrochloric Hydro- -ic Lecture 9/6 Dr. Ross Dalbey Chemistry 1110 acid # of Oxygen Example Acid Prefix Acid Suffix Atoms compared with an –ic acid Same HIO 3 iodic acid None -ic One more HIO 4 periodic Per- -ic acid One fewer HIO 2 iodous acid None -ous Two fewer HIO, hypoiodous Hypo- -ous acid No oxygen HI, hydroiodic Hydro- -ic H. Oxoanion: negatively charged ion that contains oxygen # of Example Acid Acid Suffix Anion Anion Oxygen Prefix Suffix Example Atoms Compared with an –ic acid 3- Same HClO 3 None -ic ClO Chlorate chloric acid ion One more HClO 4 Per- -ic ClO4- Perchlorate perchloric acid ion 2- One fewer HClO 2 None -ous ClO Chlorite ion Chlorous acid Two fewer HClO Hypo- -ic ClO- Hypochlorit Hypochloric e ion acid - No Oxygen HCl Hydro- -ic Cl Hydrochlori Hydrochloric de ion acid # of Example Acid Prefix Acid Anion Anion Oxygen Suffix Suffix Example Atoms Compared with an –ic acid Same HXO ,YXic None -ic -ate XO Y acid Xate ion Lecture 9/6 Dr. Ross Dalbey Chemistry 1110 Z+1 One more HXO Y+1 Per- -ic -ate XO Y PerXic PerXate ion acid Z-1 One fewer HXO Y-1 None -ous -ite XO Y Xous acid Xite ion Z-2 Two fewer HXO Y-2 Hypo- -ic -ite XO Y HypoXic HypoXite ion acid Z-2 No Oxygen HX Hydro- -ic -ide XO Y HydroXic HydroXide ion acid I. Polyprotic acid: acid that can lose more than one proton Acid Ion Name of Ion H 2 hydrogen sulfide HS - Hydrogen sulfide H SO sulfuric acid HSO - Hydrogen sulfate 2 4 4- H 2O 3 sulfurous acid HSO 3 Hydrogen sulfite H 3O 4 phosphoric acid H2PO 4- Dihydrogen phosphate 2- H 2O 4 dihydrogen phosphate HPO 4 Hydrogen phosphate H 2O 3carbonic acid HCO 3- Hydrogen carbonate J. Hydrate: solid that contains water molecules as part of the structure K. Anhydrous compound: a substance that is w/o water or from which water has been removed Lecture 9/6 Dr. Ross Dalbey Chemistry 1110 Summary of Nomenclature System Substance Name Formula Element Name of element Symbol of element Exceptions: H 2 N2, F2, O 2 2 , 2l , 2r st st Compounds w/ 2 1 element in fndmula Symbol of 1 element nonmetals followed by 2 , changed in name followed by to end in –ide, each symbol of 2 ndelement, element preceded by w/ to show # of atoms x prefix to show the # in molecule atoms in molecule Monoatomic cation Name of element Symbol of element x followed by ion; if followed by to indicate element forms 1+ charge monoatomic cation, elemental name is followed by ion charge in Roman numerals and in () Monoatomic anion Name of element Symbol of element changed to end in –ide followed by to indicate charge Other polyatomic Ammonium ion NH 4+ ions Hydroxide ion OH - Ionic compound Name of cation followed Cation formula followed by name of anion by anion formula, each taken as many times as necessary to yield a net charge of 0 (polyatomic ions enclosed in parentheses if taken 1+) Acid VIEW CHART H followed by symbol of nonmetal followed by O (if necessary), each w/ appropriate x Lecture 9/6 Dr. Ross Dalbey Chemistry 1110 Polyatomic anion Replace –ic in acid name Acid formula w/o H, from total ionization with –ate, or replace –ous plus showing (-) of oxoacid in acid name with –ite, charge = # of H followed by ion removed from acid formula Polyatomic anion Hydrogen followed by Acid formula -1 (or 2 for from step-by-step name of ion from total H3PO4) H, plus x ionization of oxoacid ionization of acid showing (-) charge = # (dihydrog-n in the case of H removed from acid of H 2O 4 formula Hydrate Name of anhydrous Formula of anhydrous compound followed by compound nH2O, (#prefix)hydrate, where where n is # of H2O (#prefix) indicates the # molecules associated of H2O molecules w/ 1 formula unit of associated w/ 1 formula anhydrous compound unit of anhydrous compound
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