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Chem 105, Week 6 Notes

by: Lauren Notetaker

Chem 105, Week 6 Notes CHEM 105

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Lauren Notetaker


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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on Quiz 4 and Exam 2. This covers hybridization theory.
General Chemistry I
Dr. Grossoehme
Class Notes
General Chemistry, hybridization, atom hybridization
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 105 at Winthrop University taught by Dr. Grossoehme in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Winthrop University.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Chemical Bonding- Hybridization Theory Only an s, or partly s, orbital can form a sigma bond. Example using hydrogen: Electrons Overlap of s-type orbitals Bond Every bond must start with a sigma bond. 1s 1s H H 1 Bond An example using F-2 The bond between the fluorine molecules represents one sigma bond. Each fluorine also has three lone pairs. 2p 2p 1s 1s F F Here we have unpaired electrons in the p orbital. In order to form a sigma bond, these electrons must be in the s orbital We can rearrange the model so that the s and p orbitals are represented together, and achieve a sigma bond. sp3 sp3 F F Represents the three lone pairs in the Lewis Structure. Represents the three lone pairs in the Lewis Structure. How many lobes are in the hybrid?  1 lone pair is equal to 1 lobe  1 sigma bond is equal to 1 lobe Fluorine will have four lobes- each lobe is circled below: We can use this information to essentially fill the shells. S + P + P + P = sp3 Each of the lobes The other fluorine also results in an sp3 configuration. 5 lobes- sp3d 4 lobes= sp3 3 lobes= sp2 2 lobes= sp A single bond is a sigma bond. A double bond is one sigma bond and one pi bond. A triple bond is one sigma bond and two pi bonds. To determine the sigma bond, we still don’t recognize the double bond when circling our pairs. In this instance, we have three lobes. Because of this, the sigma configuration for both of the carbon molecules will be sp2. sp2 sp2 C C At this point, we can fill in three of our electrons of each carbon. In order to hybridize, we need to fill in some more information. sp2 sp2 C C We can add these We can add these two electrons that two electrons that were gained from were gained from the C-H bond. the C-H bond. sp2 sp2 C C Now we can make our first sigma bond! But remember, C-2 has a double bond, and we’re still missing one electron! p π p sp2 sp2 C C Lone pairs Lone pairs A complete answer means you have labeled all electrons


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