Human Growth and Development Week 7 Notes
Human Growth and Development Week 7 Notes EPY 2513
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Greer on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EPY 2513 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Abernathy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 09/28/16
9/26/16 Human Growth and Development Chapter 6 Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development • Child maltreatment noticed and defined child maltreatment • intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age substantiated maltreatment • harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated, and verified reported maltreatment • harm or endangerment about which someone has contacted authorities • Consequences of Maltreatment effects of maltreatment are devastating and longlasting • mistreated and neglected children regard people as hostile and exploitative less friendly, more aggressive, and more isolated than other children experience greater social deficits may experience large and enduring economic consequences • Emotional Development emotional regulation (effortful control) • ability to control when and how emotions are expressed • preeminent psychological task between 26 years of age • internalizing a problem compared to externalizing a problem initiative vs. guilt • Erikson’s third psychosocial crisis • children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them • guilt compared to shame • selfesteem compared to selfconcept • Brain Maturation 9/26/16 Human Growth and Development neurological advances • growth of prefrontal cortex at about age 4 or 5 • myelination of the limbic system improved behaviors and abilities • longer attention span • improved capacity for selfcontrol • Motivation motivation propels action and is derived from personal or social context • intrinsic do something for won pleasure • extrinsic do something to get something in return • Play play is the most productive and enjoyable activity that children undertake • play is universal play with peers has occurred for many years • Types of play: Parten 1932 solitary play play by yourself onlooker play doesn't play, but watches others play parallel play same play at same time, but not playing together associative play sharing play area or toys cooperative play playing together • Active Play rough and tumble play • mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting with no intention of harm sociodramatic play • allows children to act out various roles and themes in stories that they create • allows children to explore and rehearse social roles 9/26/16 Human Growth and Development test ability to explain practice regulating emotions develop a selfconcept • Baumrind’s Styles of Caregiving parents differ on four important dimensions • expressions of warmth • strategies of discipline • communication • expectations of maturity 3 parenting styles were identified using these dimensions • authoritarian parenting rigid rules, strict obedience, “my way or the highway”, children are typically quick to leave, OCD tendencies, responsible, guilt • permissive parenting tries to be more a friend rather than a parent, children have a tough time leaving home and finding their place • authoritative parenting balance between the two, children are well adjusted and wellliked Sternberg presents a fourth style • neglectful/ uninvolved parenting parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in the child’s life • Sex and Gender sex differences physical, biological gender differences social, how we dress and live androgyny person that has the desirable characteristics of both genders • Theories of Gender Role Development psychoanalytical theory Freud • phallic stage • Oedipus complex (and the Electra complex) behaviorism 9/26/16 Human Growth and Development • gender differences product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment • gender appropriate rewarded more frequently than gender inappropriate behavior • social learning theory children notice the ways men and women behave and internalize the standards they observe cognitive theory • gender schema child’s cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences based on experiences young children categorize themselves and everyone else as either male or female and think or behave accordingly • Moral Development prosocial behavior • empathy antisocial behavior • antipathy