New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Comm. 89 (Jansma) Week 1 Notes

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review

Comm. 89 (Jansma) Week 1 Notes Comm 89

GPA 3.7
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Theories of Communication

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Theories of Communication notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Lecture and Section notes from the first three lectures and first two sections of Comm. 89 with Dr. Jansma
Theories of Communication
Class Notes
communication, comm89, jansma, UCSB, Comm




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star

Popular in Theories of Communication

Popular in Communication

This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 89 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by JANSMA in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 206 views. For similar materials see Theories of Communication in Communication at University of California Santa Barbara.

Similar to Comm 89 at UCSB

Popular in Communication


Reviews for Comm. 89 (Jansma) Week 1 Notes

Star Star Star Star Star



Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/28/16
Tuesday, September 27, 2016 Comm. 89 - Dr. Jansma Lecture 1 - 9/22/16 - Professor: Dr. Jansma • TA Introduction: Alex Sink • Reminder: Petition for the major towards the end of the course • Final Exam: Not cumulative - Goals of Theory - Most theories only describe/explain • Describes: Organizes experiences/phenomena • Explains: Guides Understanding of how/why • Predicts: Reduces uncertainty • Controls: Helps manage behavioral outcomes - What is a Comm. Theory? • Explanation or representation of communication • Set of constructs, definitions, propositions • Based on systematic observation • To represent, explain or predict communicative action between two or more people - What does Comm. Theory focus on? • Source/Communicator: What thoughts, motivations, self-image does the source have? • Message: What is the content, form, meaning of the message? Receiver/Interactant: What role, expectations, reaction, adaptation? • • Channel: What is it? What difference does it make? • Meaning: Where is it? How is it created, by whom? Is it shared? • Relationship: What is it? Does it matter? 1 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 - Theory vs. Hypothesis • Theory - Broad/general explanation or representation of a phenomenon - Applies to a variety of situations • Hypothesis - Guided by a theory - Tests specific relationship between specific variables - Two Ways to Construct Theory • Induction - 1. Make Observations - 2. Generalize from Observations - 3. Create Theory • Deduction - 1. Examine existing theory - 2. Derive testable hypotheses - 3. Make observations - Cyclical Process of Theory Construction • Deductive Process: Theories —> Hypotheses —> Observations • Inductive Process: Observations —> Generalizations —> Theories Section 1 - 9/22/16 - Alex Sink: SSMS 4419 • • Office Hours: Tuesday and Thursday 2-3 - Theory vs. Hypothesis • Theory: General, abstract 2 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 - Example: Society often puts blame on the female figure in instances of extramarital affairs. • Hypothesis: Specific, tests a relationship - Example: In a marriage, if the woman fails to provide sufficient attention to her husband, it is more likely for an extramarital affair to occur. - Inductive vs. Deductive • Opposites of each other Lecture 2 - 9/27/16 - Review of Comm. 1 Material: What is Communication? • Social process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning wishing their environment 3 Models of Communication • - Linear Model • Key Features: one-way, noise, channel (from source/encoder to receiver/ decoder) - Interaction Model (more realistic) Key Features: feedback, shared meaning, process (from encoder’s experience • to the decoder’s experience) - Feedback: nodding head, giving a puzzled look, etc. - Transactional Model (even more going on than feedback) Key Features: interdependency, simultaneous meaning • - Level of interdependency between the participants; speaks to what their relationship is, a simultaneous creation of meaning - The BIG Picture: Meta-theory, Paradigms & Levels What are theories based on? • - What theorists think is real, is important, and should be done with knowledge - How theorists define/label what they focus on 3 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 • 3 Meta-theory Considerations that Guide Theory - Meta-theory: Theorizing about theory • 1. Ontology (What?) - What is true/real? • Subjective vs. Objective Reality (mom’s opinion = subjective, employers’ opinion = objective) - Subjective/interpretive/humanistic paradigm of reality • Reality is created in the minds of individuals (personal experience rather than agreement from others) • Subjective/idiosyncratic/individual experience • Free will guides actions - Objective/social scientific/nomothetic paradigm of reality • Reality/truth exists in external world - Separate from individuals’ interpretations • Discover reality objectively and quantitatively - “Consensus” and “agreement” • Deterministic - “Cause and effect”, not free will • Reductionism - Whole = sum of parts - Focus on only a few parts at a time Subjective, Interpretive Humanistic, Qualitative (Unique)———Objective, Social Scientific, Nomothetic, Quantitative (Patterns) • 2. Epistemology (How?) - How do we know what is true/real? What counts as knowledge? • Qualitative experience vs. quantifiable data 4 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 - Qualitative: he is tall, they eat all the time, she is good with money, the cat is fat - Quantitative: he is 5 feet 7 inches tall, they eat 2 times a day, she saves $2,000 a month, the cat weighs 20 pounds 3. Axiology (Why?) • - What is role of values? What should we do with our knowledge? Improve society vs. simply extend knowledge? • Value-driven vs. value-neutral (Bring about change vs. observe what is; idealist vs. pragmatist) - Why are you theorizing? In order to forward knowledge of reality? Or in order to bring about social change? To what degree should theories attempt to be objective vs. attempt to influence society? - Levels of Communication • Interpersonal, intra-personal, group, media, intercultural, public, rhetorical, etc. (listed in reading) Lecture 3 - 9/29/16 - Theories of Cognition and Info Processing - Attribution Theory & Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Attribution Theories - Theorists: Heider, Kelley, Bem, Weiner, et al. - Main Idea: We create explanations about people and behaviors - Contexts: Interpersonal & Interpersonal Applies to multiple levels and functions (e.g., persuasion, education) • - Major Premises • People attempt to determine causes of own and others’ behavior - especially if behavior is negative or unusual People assign causes based on their own perceptions and perceptual style • 5 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 - People assign causes systematically based upon 3 interdependent dimensions • Location of Cause (Locus of control) - Internal/Personal/Trait - External/Situational/Circumstance • Controllability/Intent - Person can vs. can’t control situation/circumstance/behavior • Stability of Cause - Consistent vs. Unique to this Situation or Person • Attributions Guide Feelings and Behaviors - Ex: Susan Boyle • Attributions that we make initially can change when we get new information - Susan Boyle’s voice = new information - 2 Biases in Attribution Process • FAE (Fundamental Attribution Error): See’s Linus’ faults - We tend to explain other peoples’ negatives behaviors with internal attributions • S-S Bias (Self-Serving Bias): Doesn’t see her own - We associate our own positive actions with internal attributions and our own negative actions with external attributions • Those with whom we identify = same as ourselves - Ex: “We won” vs. “they lost” • Research Applications - Motivation • Increased with Use of Internal Attributes: - “You seem to know your math assignments very well” - “You must really enjoy reading” 6 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 • Rather than only External Attributes - “Your Dad must have helped you with your math” • Ex: Volunteerism - Voluntary behavior = internal motive - Pay = external motive • Conflict Management - Ex: Homeless man on the street saying “Please don’t make the FAE error! Put yourself in my place!” • Strengths & Weaknesses of Attribution Theories - Strengths: Heuristic: generates thought and creation of knowledge • • Practical Applications: how can we use it in the real world - Weaknesses: • Falsifiability: No way to be able to show that it is false • Cognitive Dissonance Theory - Theorist: Festinger - Major Premise: People seek consonance/harmony among cognitive elements - Context: General theory crosses contexts and has a strong persuasive function - Dynamics of Dissonance & Reduction • Relationships among cognitive elements - Consonant/Harmonious - Null/Irrelevant - Dissonant/Conflicting • New information can cause dissonance. Dissonance produces pressure to reduce it. - “To drink or not to drink?” 7 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 • Magnitude (Amount) of Dissonance: - Increases with: • Highly important issues • Mutually exclusive attractive alternatives - Can’t do both of them - Decreases with: Satisfaction of choice • • Similarity among alternatives • Strategies for Reducing/Coping with Dissonance - Team Lost • “Didn’t really care that much anyway.” • “My team/group members performed poorly.” - Dumped • “I’m too good for him.” • Perceptual Processes that Minimize Dissonance - Selective Exposure: Reduce exposure to dissonant stimuli • Not buying junk food to avoid exposure to it when trying to eat healthy - Selective Attention: Focus attention on consonant stimuli • Listen to the person who will reinforce what it is you want (calling that one friend when you want to break up with you boyfriend who will tell you to break up with them) - Selective Interpretation: Distort information or bring in new belief • “I’m too good for him, I don’t want him” - Selective Retention: Remember the consonant, Forget the dissonant • Selective memory • Strengths & Weaknesses of Cognitive Dissonance Theory 8 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 - Strengths: • Internal consistency • External consistency • Practical Utility - Decision-making - Forced compliance - Initiation - Weaknesses: • Low falsifiability Section 2 - 9/29/16 - Models of Communication • Linear Model - Good display for media messages; listening to the radio, watching TV, etc. • Interaction Model - More of a process than the Linear Model, creation of shared meaning • Transactional Model - Interdependency; simultaneous creation of meaning - Metatheory: theorizing about theory • Ontology - What is true/real? Subjective vs. objective reality • Epistemology - The truth; how do we know what is true? How do we know what counts as knowledge? • Qualitative vs. quantitative • Axiology 9 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 - Why? • Value-driven vs. value-neutral (Bring about change vs. observe what is; idealist vs. pragmatist) - Attribution Theory • Premise: We create explanations about people and behaviors that they have, we give attributions to people based on how they function • 3 Dimensions: - Location of cause: if it’s an internal or external cause for someone’s behavior • Internal/Personal/Trait vs. External/Situational/Circumstance - Controllability/Intent • Person can or can’t control the situation/circumstance/behavior - Stability of Cause • Consistent vs. unique to the situation or person • FAE vs. SSB - Fundamental Attribution Error - Self-Serving Bias - Cognitive Dissonance • Premise: People seek consonance/harmony among cognitive elements - Ex: Smoking - I know it’s bad for me but it reduces my stress levels • Cognitive Relationships: - Consonant/Harmonious • “Mint chocolate chip ice cream is delicious and it makes me feel happy” - Null/Irrelevant • “Mint chocolate chip ice cream is delicious and the sky is blue” - won’t create any dissonance - Dissonant/Conflicting • “Mint chocolate chip ice cream is delicious but it makes me fat” 10 Tuesday, September 27, 2016 • Ways to Minimize: - Selective Exposure • Reducing your exposure to dissonant stimuli - Selective Attention • Ignore the flaws in a boyfriend/girlfriend, avoid the creation of dissonance/ conflict in your own head - Selective Interpretation • Take on the cognitive load and justify it; “they don’t know him like I do, he’s the best” - Selective Retention - Selective memory; I’m going to forget any bad thing I’ve heard about this person 11


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.