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endocrine system

by: Charissa Notetaker

endocrine system biol 216

Marketplace > Liberty University > Biology > biol 216 > endocrine system
Charissa Notetaker
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Human Anatomy and Physiology 11 Lab
Ms. Lenz
Class Notes
lab, anatomy, Anatomy & Physiology II, Endocrine system, Endocrine




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charissa Notetaker on Wednesday September 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to biol 216 at Liberty University taught by Ms. Lenz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology 11 Lab in Biology at Liberty University.


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Date Created: 09/28/16
Endocrine System Purpose of the Endocrine System 1. “Command and control”. 2. Monitor internal conditions and control slow or cyclic body functions. 3. Example: a. Female menstrual cycle. Organs of the Endocrine System 1. Brain 6. Heart 2. Pineal gland 7. Pancreas 3. Pituitary gland 8. Kidney 4. Thyroid and parathyroid 9. Adrenal glands 5. Thymus 10. Gonads – ovaries & testes *Some organs are both endocrine and exocrine. *Some organs are part of other body systems. The Pituitary Gland & Hypothalamus 1. Location of the pituitary in relation to the brain & hypothalamus: a. Pituitary stalk or infundibulum. 2. Basic anatomy of the pituitary gland: a. “Master gland” i. Produces hormones that directly control the activities of other endocrine glands (causing them to produce their own hormones). ii. Close physical and functional relationship with the hypothalamus of the brain. 3. Two methods of communication: a. Hypophyseal portal system (blood). i. From hypothalamus to anterior pituitary. b. Hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract (neurons). i. From hypothalamus to posterior pituitary. 4. Hypothalamus secretes regulatory hormones to control anterior pituitary hormones (Ex. TRH, GH- RH, etc.). 5. Anterior pituitary hormones: a. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone). b. LH (leutenizing hormone). c. ATCH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). d. GH (growth hormone). e. TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). f. PRL (prolactin). g. MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone). 6. Posterior pituitary hormones: a. ADH (antidiuretic hormone). i. A.k.a. vasopressin. b. OT (oxytocin). **These are made by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary. Pathologies 1. Growth hormone: a. Acromegaly – excessive GH after puberty (fusion of growth plates). b. Gigantism – excessive GH before puberty (bones and tissue never stop growing). c. Pituitary dwarfism. 2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone: a. Cushing’s disease – excessive ACTH  excess cortisol. i. High blood glucose. ii. Fatty deposits. iii. “buffalo hump” b. Addison’s disease – lack of ACTH  low cortisol levels. i. Fatigue. ii. Low blood pressure. iii. Pigmentation changes. Adrenal Glands 1. Two glands – rest superiorly on the kidneys. 2. Each gland has two layers: a. Medulla: i. Hormone releasing cells are triggered directly by the nervous system – neuroepithelial cells. ii. Controlled by sympathetic nervous system. iii. Releases epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) into the blood. 1. “Fight or flight” response. b. Cortex: i. Three regions (outermost to innermost): 1. Zona glomerulosa – salt. a. Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone). 2. Zona fasiculata – sugar. a. Glucocorticoids (cortisol). 3. Zona reticularis – sex. a. Sex hormones (androgens/gonocorticoids). Thyroid Gland 1. Produces two hormones: a. T 3triiodothyronine). i. Active form. b. T 4thyroxine). 2. Produced by follicular cells. a. Iodine is required for production. b. Hypothyroidic goiter is caused by iodine deficiency. 3. Released in response to TSH. a. Increases overall metabolic activity. 4. Parafollicular cells produce Calcitonin (CT). a. Cells monitor concentration of calcium in blood and release calcitonin when blood calcium is too high. b. Kidneys respond to CT by excreting calcium into urine, reducing blood levels. Parathyroid Glands 1. Four small nodules on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. 2. Produce PTH (parathyroid hormone). a. Released when blood calcium is too low. b. Kidneys respond by keeping calcium in the blood, and by releasing calcitriol (increases GI absorption of calcium). c. Stimulates osteoclasts that dissolve bone to add calcium to the blood. Pancreas 1. Exocrine function: a. Produce and secrete digestive enzymes. 2. Endocrine function: a. Islets of Langerhans i. Alpha cells – produce glucagon. ii. Beta cells – produce insulin. b. Cyclical maintenance of blood glucose levels. Pineal Gland 1. Produces melatonin. a. Regulates circadian rhythm. b. Production is lowest in daylight hours, highest at night. c. Higher during winter months – may play a role in seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Endocrine Functions of Other Organs 1. The heart: a. ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide). b. BNP (brain natriuretic peptide). c. Released when chambers of the heart become over-stretched. d. Kidneys respond by increasing urine production, removing water from the blood reducing volume and pressure. 2. The kidneys: a. EPO (erythropoietin) – released in response to low blood volume. i. Stimulates production of RBCs. b. Renin – released in response to low blood flow resulting from low blood pressure. i. Stimulates release of ADH and aldosterone leading to water retention and increased thirst. c. Calcitriol, which is discussed earlier. 3. The intestines: a. Gastrin – produced by stomach. b. CCK (cholecystokinin) – produced in duodenum. 4. Adipose: a. Leptin – the “satiety hormone.” i. Made my adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. ii. Leptin is opposed by the actions of the hormone ghrelin, the “hunger hormone.” 5. The thymus: a. Lymphatic organ that atrophies with age. b. Produces thymosins – direct the differentiation of T cells, which are important for immune response. 6. The gonads: a. Ovaries – estrogen. b. Testes – testosterone. Adrenal Gland Anterior/Posterior Pituitary Thyroid and Parathyroid Pancreas Testes/Testis Ovary with Follicles


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